The Modern Lawyer № 1(42)





Alla A. Timofeeva

Candidate of Historical Sciences, docent, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of Russian and Foreign Law, Honorary Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation.


Local self-government in Russia: genesis and evolution


Subject/topic. The most important issue for post-Soviet democracy is the improvement of the system of local self-government, as close as possible to the population and ensuring the democratic character and stability of the entire system of government institutions.

Coals/tasks. The reform of this sphere has revealed many shortcomings: federal legislation does not formulate economic or financial criteria; the creation of self-government bodies is carried out by an administrative way; public opinion is not prepared for the introduction of self-government processes. Clarification of the role of local self-government in the structure of public authorities, a correct assessment of its nature and historical roots determined the undoubted relevance of the topic and caused its wide discussion by scientists and practitioners.

The subject of discussion is the very nature of self–government, the relationship between governance and self-government, all previous experience of local construction.

This article presents the results of studying the process of creation and development of local self-government in Russia, which existed in various forms: Veche democracy, self-government of the XVI-XIX centuries, zemstvos, soviets.

Methodology. The comparative-historical and retrospective approach made it possible, against the background of the corresponding stages of Russian history, to determine the content and specifics of these concepts in a particular period.

Conclusion. It is logical to conclude that it is important to use domestic experience, which will help determine the vector of development of the institution of self-government in modern conditions.

Keywords: local self-government, veche, provincial huts, zemstvo reform, councils, democracy, power, centralization.


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Sergey I. Girko

Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science Center for Security Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences Director, Chief Researcher, Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia Research Institute, chief research fellow Doctor of Law, professor.


Modern problems of legal regulation of public safety


Subject/topic. Modern problems of legal regulation of public safety

Goals/tasks. In the article, based on the analysis of the main provisions of the basic documents of national, state and public security of the Russian Federation, as well as the decision to suspend work on the Concept of Public Security of the Russian Federation, studies conducted by scientific experts come to the conclusion that the conceptual apparatus, which characterizes the legal provisions of public security, has not received adequate consolidation in normative acts of the federal level, which consider and regulate legal Therefore, the entire conceptual apparatus of public safety, which in its time was enshrined in the Concept of Public Safety of the Russian Federation, has essentially returned to the doctrinal level of debate, and the legal relations characterizing public safety have been partially dispersed between the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and some other legislative acts, but mostly left without special comprehensive legal protection. All these circumstances in their totality make it necessary to conduct a scientific search for a solution to the created problems.

Methodology. Analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, problem statement, hypothesis building, specification, monitoring.

Conclusion: As a result of the analysis the author concludes that the need to ensure legal protection of public relations, constituting in their totality the format of public safety, which were the subject and objects of the Concept of Public Safety of the Russian Federation by the state, has actually fallen out from under such protection, but still need it. He shares the view that the scientific hypothesis about the possibility of solving the complex of existing problems is possible through the development and adoption of a legislative act of the federal level, dedicated to public safety, which in normative and legal order should fix not only the basic glossary, but also approaches to the protection of public safety as one of the basic objects of national security of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: public safety, concept, strategy, national security, public relations, sphere of public safety.


Girko (2019) – Girko S.I. On the implementation of the Concept of Public Security of the Russian Federatation [K voprosu o realizatsii Kontseptsii obshestvenoy bezopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii]. Administrative Law and Process. No. 9. 2019. pp. 48-52.

Girko (2019) – Girko S.I. The concept of public security as an element of the national security strategy of the Russian Federation [Kontseptsija obshestvenoy bezopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii, kak element strategii natsionalnoj besopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii]. Materials of the interdepartmental scientific and practical conference “Topical issues of ensuring the defense capability and security of the state in new economic conditions” (April 23, 2019) / edited by Doctor of Economics, prof.

Girko (2019) – Girko S.I. Is the prolongation of the “Concept of Public security in the Russian Federation” justified? [Obosnovana li prolongatsija Kontseptsiji obshestvenoy bezopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii] NPJ “Dialog”. 2019. No. 2. pp. 6-15.

Girko (2020) – Girko S.I. Prospects of prolongation of the Concept of Public Security of the Russian Federation for the period of 2030 [Prspektivi prolongatsii Kontseptsii obshestvenoy bezopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii na period do 2030]. Improvement of the system of material and technical support of the service and combat activities of the troops of the National Guard of the Russian Federation. Experience, problems and solutions: A collection of scientific articles based on the materials of the interdepartmental scientific and practical conference (April 03, 2020), Part I – St. Petersburg: VAMTO, 2020. pp. 211-215.

Girko (2020) – Girko S.I. Modern vector of development of the Concept of public Security of the Russian Federation [Sovremennij vector razvitija Kontseptsii obshestvenoy bezopasnosti Rossijskoi Federatsii]. Administrative Law and Process. 2020. No. 8. pp. 26-30.

Zubova, Kalmykov, Sandugei, Tsokolova (2021) – Zubova M.V., Kalmykov G.I., Sandugei A.N., Tsokolova O.I. Conceptual problems of strategic planning in the field of public security [Kontseptualniji problem strategitheskogo planirovanija v sfere obshestvenoy bezopasnosti] / Scientific portal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 2021. No. 3 (55) pp. 64-71.

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Osipov (2017) – Osipov M.Yu. On some problems of implementing the provisions of the Federal Law on Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation [O nekotorih problemah realizatsii federalnogo zakonodatelstva o strategitheskom planirovaniji v Rossijskoi Federatsii]// State power and local self-government. 2017. No. 12.


Violetta V. Belousova

Postgraduate student of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)”, Moscow.



Academic Supervisor: Yuri Viktorovich Stepanenko, Professor of the Department of Administrative Law and Procedure at the University named after O.E. Kutafina (Moscow State Law Academy), Chief Researcher of the PKU NII FSIN of Russia Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

State land supervision as a type of land protection


Subject / Topic. State land supervision as a type of land protection

Goals / Objectives. The protection of land plots, their use for their intended purpose, taking into account the preservation of soil fertility, is determined by the effective state policy of the country, in connection with which, compliance with the requirements of the law and minimization of offenses in the field of land relations is complex. Therefore, ensuring systematic and uninterrupted state supervision, as well as taking the necessary measures to prevent, detect and suppress offenses determine the relevance of this study. In the article, the author examines the grounds for carrying out preventive measures to prevent offenses in the field of land relations, including establishing a relationship with the definition of risks and information obtained during monitoring. And incomplete and not always reliable information about land plots represent numerous obstacles to the establishment of positive application of measures to prevent and suppress offenses. The purpose of the study is the analysis of practical problems in the conduct of state supervision.

Conclusion and Relevance. The results of the research can be used for further development of methods for solving practical problems in the field of state land supervision.

Keywords: land protection, land supervision, land use, reclamation, land reclamation, preventive measures.


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Saporov (2018) – Saporov R.R. Issues of prosecutorial supervision over the implementation of legislation on land use [Voprosi prokurorskogo nadzora za ispolneniem zakonodatelstva o zemlepolzovanii] // Law and Practice [Pravo i praktika]. 2018

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Ruslan V. Gavrilyuk

Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Kazan, Russian Federation.


Galina Yu. Nosanenko

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law and Public Law Disciplines, Kazan, Russian Federation.


Problems of inheritance in inheritance law: a brief analysis


Subject/topic The paper examines individual problems of the sphere of hereditary legal relations. The authors of the article, defining inheritance as a constitutionally guaranteed, relevant and universally demanded civil institution that provides an individual with the right to dispose of his property, exploring current topics of civil law, in particular, certain issues of inheritance, referring to modern domestic and foreign civil law doctrine, positive civil legislation and established judicial practice in Russia, consider the existing problems in this sphere of public relations related to fair, from a social point of view, distribution of inheritance. Thus, the problem of inheritance by disabled and minor grandchildren (great-grandchildren) of the testator in the case of making a will not in their favor is identified and characterized, and the question of a social nature is also raised about the fairness of attributing stepsons, stepdaughters, stepfather and stepmother to the seventh line of inheritance.

Goals/tasks The purpose of the work extends to the study of individual problems in the field of inheritance, in particular, related to the fair order in the distribution of inheritance and the mandatory share of the hereditary mass. In this regard, the tasks are set to study the current judicial practice, which is related to the above problems, to characterize the existing legal norms that regulate this sphere of legal relations and to analyze the available doctrinal provisions on the subject under consideration.

Methodology The research is based on a dialectical and systematic approach, as well as analysis and synthesis of the phenomena under consideration, private scientific methods were used: comparative legal, sociological and axiological.

Conclusions Clearly regulating their position, the researchers come to the conclusion that in order to solve the identified socio-legal problems of hereditary relations, it is necessary to adjust the modern legal norms of civil legislation regulating the relations in question. In this regard, the authors of the article, summing up the results of the study, propose to amend the current Civil Code of the Russian Federation regarding the mandatory share of subjects of the right of inheritance in Article 1149 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the order of persons called by law as heirs in Articles 1144 and 1145 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: civil law, inheritance law, social justice, testator, heir, compulsory share of inheritance, priority of heirs.


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Natalia V. Sheremetyeva

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the VVSU Federal State Educational Institution.


Elena A. Shulga

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the VVSU Federal State Educational Institution.


Technical documentation and architectural and construction design in the construction contract


Subject/topic The article analyzes the construction contract as a tool for regulating construction legal relations. The emphasis is placed on such an aspect of the contractual structure as the design and technical documentation attached to any construction contract. The main idea of the article is that a construction contract is not concluded without fulfilling the terms of a contract for the performance of design and survey work, although they are regulated by civil law as two separate contracts.

Purpose/objectives The purpose of the study is to determine the importance of technical and project documentation for the implementation of legal relations based on a construction contract. To achieve the research goal, the article implements two main tasks. Firstly, the features of the creation of technical and architectural design documentation and the sources of legal regulation of the process of its development are considered, secondly, the degree of importance of the created design documentation for the parties of legal relations arising on the basis of a construction contract is determined.

Methodology In the course of the research, general scientific and private legal methods were used, namely, induction and induction methods, retrospective method, comparative method, classification method, structural analysis method, lexical analysis method of legal norms and other methods.

Conclusions In the course of the study, it was found that technical and architectural and construction documentation is a set of drawings, diagrams, projects, explanatory notes, technical calculations, collected in accordance with the norms of federal legislation, sanitary, economic and technical requirements. Technical documentation is reflected in the form of a working draft with an estimated calculation, which is subsequently used in construction legal relations between the parties to the construction contract. For the participants of the construction contract, all documentation concerning technical and architectural requirements is mandatory, but in the practical implementation of the project, some deviations may be allowed due to the peculiarities of the landscape, natural conditions and other objective factors, which should be allowed by law and explained in the construction contract itself as an indispensable condition.

Keywords: construction contract, capital construction object, construction activity, technical documentation, participants in legal relations, standards, project documentation.


Antipov (2021) – Antipov M.G. Contract for the execution of design and survey work [Dogovor podryada na vypolnenie proektnyh i izyskatel’skih rabot] / Digital transformations in the development of the economy and society: Proceedings of the XVIII International Scientific and Practical Conference. – Voronezh: Publishing house “NAUKA-UNIPRESS”, 2021. – P. 21 – 24. – 556 p.

Bashkatova (2020) – Bashkatova A.S. Some issues of legal regulation of the contract for the performance of design and survey work [Nekotorye voprosy pravovogo regulirovaniya dogovora podryada na vypolnenie proektnyh i izyskatel’skih rabot] Actual problems of private law in the Russian Federation: Collection of articles of the III Annual All-Russian Student Scientific and Practical Conference. – Simferopol: Publishing house of the Crimean Federal University. IN AND. Vernadsky, 2020. – S. 75 – 80. – 386 p.

Gorbunov, Tupitsina (2022) – Gorbunov S.V., Tupitsina E.V. Organization of design and contracting relations in construction [Organizaciya proektirovaniya i podryadnyh otnoshenij v stroitel’stve] / Modern trends in innovative development of Russia: theory and practice: Proceedings of the National Scientific and Practical Conference. – Nizhny Novgorod: Publishing house of the Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2022. – P. 43 – 47. – 157 p.

Novozhilov (2012) – Novozhilov O.S. Essential terms of a construction contract [Sushchestvennye usloviya dogovora stroitel’nogo podryada]. – M.: Publishing house “Panorama” // Accounting in construction organizations. – 2012. – No. 10. – S. 70 – 74.

Sazonov (2020) – Sazonov M.P. Rules for the preparation of technical specifications for the organization of construction work [Pravila sostavleniya tekhnicheskogo zadaniya pri organizacii stroitel’nyh rabot]. – M.: Publishing house of the International Academy of Construction, Architecture and Design // Estimated and contractual work in construction. – 2020. – No. 5. – S. 42 – 49.

Skachkova, Karapetyan (2021) – Skachkova O.V., Karapetyan A.A. Actual issues of the practice of consideration by arbitration courts of disputes from a construction contract [Aktual’nye voprosy praktiki rassmotreniya arbitrazhnymi sudami sporov iz dogovora stroitel’nogo podryada]. – M: Publishing house LLC “Economic sciences” // Questions of Economics and Law. – 2021. – No. 156. – S. 33 – 37.

Tishenko (2012) – Tishenko V.V. Building codes yesterday and today [Stroitel’nye normy i pravila vchera i segodnya. – M.: Izdatel’stvo OOO «BST» // BST: Byulleten’ stroitel’noj tekhniki] – M.: Publishing house LLC “BST” // BST: Bulletin of construction equipment. – 2012. – No. 4 (932). – S. 11 – 16.

Ulaeva (2015) – Ulaeva N.L. Civil law regulation of urban planning: essence, significance and prospects for improvement [Upravlenie investicionno-stroitel’nymi proektami: Uchebnoe posobie].  – Krasnodar: Publishing house of the Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation // Bulletin of the Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. – 2015. – No. 1 (27). – S. 26 – 30.

Chernikova (2019) – Chernikova S.A. Management of investment and construction projects: Textbook. – Perm: Publishing House of the Perm State Agrarian and Technological University named after Academician D.N. Pryanishnikova [Perm’: Izdatel’stvo Permskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarno-tekhnologicheskogo universiteta imeni akademika D.N. Pryanishnikova] 2019. – 330 p.

Chumakova (2019) – Chumakova O.V. Essential terms of a construction contract [Sushchestvennye usloviya dogovora stroitel’nogo podryada] – Noginsk: Publishing house “Analytics Rodis” // Issues of Russian and international law. – 2019. – T. 9. – No. 6-1. – S. 60 – 65.


Alexander A. Tkachenko

State employee of the Arbitration Court of Moscow, Graduate student at Moscow Finance and Law University MFLA.


Anti-crisis management of the enterprise and features of the responsibility of management bodies in bankruptcy


Subject/Topic Anti-crisis management of enterprise management bodies, as well as the specifics of the responsibility of such management bodies in case of bankruptcy.

Goals/Objectives Identification of general trends, patterns and specifics of the development of anti-crisis management of a legal entity.

Methodology Methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, analogy, legal modeling, comparative legal method were used.

Conclusion and Relevance Based on the positions provided by financial management (financial management), the potential recognition of financial insolvency (bankruptcy) is a state of crisis inherent in a commercial organization, under the conditions of which this commercial organization is unable to provide financial resources for the current activities of the production plan in a timely manner and in the required amount. The elimination of such a state, defined as the risk of loss of financial viability, necessarily implies the development of a set of specialized methodological approaches to financial management in a commercial organization. Also, the purpose of this article is to identify the key subjects associated with the loss of financial viability (bankruptcy) of the process.

Keywords: company management; governing bodies; corporate opportunities; secret profit; bankruptcy; general business activity.


Bajkina (2019) – Baykina S.G. Accounting and analysis of bankruptcy: textbook. allowance  [Uchet i analiz bankrotstv: ucheb. posobie.] − M.: Dashkov i K, 2019. − 220 c.

Baldin, Dzheffal’, Rukosuev (2019) – Baldin K.V., Jeffal V.I., Rukosuev A. Accounting and analysis of bankruptcies: textbook. allowance [Uchet i analiz bankrotstv: ucheb. posobie.] − M.: KnoRus, 2019. − 192 c.

Bobyleva (2020) – Bobyleva A.Z. Anti-crisis management: mechanisms of the state, business technologies: in 2 hours. Part 1. [Antikrizisnoe upravlenie: mekhanizmy gosudarstva, tekhnologii biznesa: v 2 ch. CH. 1.] − M.: YUrajt, 2020. − 285 c.

Borshchova A. V., Ermilina D. A., Santalova M. S. (2019) – Borschova A. V., Ermilina D. A., Santalova M. S. Anti-crisis management of socio-economic systems [Antikrizisnoe upravlenie social’no-ekonomicheskimi sistemami.] − M.: Dashkov i Ko, 2019. − 236 c.

Dolinskaya V.V. (2019) – Dolinskaya V.V. Organizational and legal forms of management: system and novels // Journal of Russian law. [Organizacionno-pravovye formy hozyajstvovaniya: sistema i novelly //ZHurnal rossijskogo prava.] − 2019. − № 1 (229). − S. 13-22.

Zakurakina O.V. (2019) – Zakurakina O.V. Formation and development of theories of a legal entity in Russia // Legal sciences: problems and prospects: materials of the II Intern. scientific conf. (Perm, January 2019). [Formirovanie i razvitie teorij yuridicheskogo lica v Rossii // YUridicheskie nauki: problemy i perspektivy: materialy II Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (Perm’, yanvar’ 2019 g.)]. − Perm’: Merkurij, 2019. − S. 3-7.

Zolotarev A.S. (2018) – Zolotarev A.S. Side effects of reforming the system of legal entities in the civil law of Russia // Young scientist. [Pobochnye effekty reformirovaniya sistemy yuridicheskih lic v grazhdanskom prave Rossii // Molodoj uchenyj.] − 2018. − №7−3. − S. 26-27.

Kilabov M.M. (2017) – Kilabov M.M. Legal entities, the concept and features of their features // Young scientist. [YUridicheskie lica, ponyatie i osobennosti ih priznakov // Molodoj uchenyj.] − 2017. − №7. − S. 350-352.

Kokoshko V.E. (2019) – Kokoshko V.E. Prospects for the development of the institute of insurance of property liability of members of the management bodies of the company in the Russian Federation // Modern Science. [Perspektivy razvitiya instituta strahovaniya imushchestvennoj otvetstvennosti chlenov organov upravleniya obshchestva v Rossijskoj Federacii // Modern Science.] − 2019. − № 6−2. −S. 154–156.

Tekut’ev D.I. (2017) – Tekutiev D.I. Legal mechanism for increasing the efficiency of the activities of members of the corporation’s management bodies. [Pravovoj mekhanizm povysheniya effektivnosti deyatel’nosti chlenov organov upravleniya korporacii.] − M.: Status, 2017. − 176 s.

Titovec M.A. (2018) – Titovets M.A. Socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurship // Economics, management, finance: materials of the II Intern. scientific conf. (Perm, December 2012). [Social’no-ekonomicheskaya harakteristika predprinimatel’stva // Ekonomika, upravlenie, finansy: materialy II Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (Perm’, dekabr’ 2012 g.)]. − Perm’: Merkurij, 2018. − S. 3-9.

Tihonova M.M. (2019) – Tikhonova M.M. The genesis of the concept of “legal entity” in science and legislation // Legal sciences: problems and prospects: materials of the III Intern. scientific conf. (Kazan, May 2015). [Genezis ponyatiya «yuridicheskoe lico» v nauke i zakonodatel’stve // YUridicheskie nauki: problemy i perspektivy: materialy III Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (Kazan’, maj 2015 g.)]. − Kazan’: Buk, 2019. − S. 120-126


Anna R. Purge

Candidate of Law, Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Institute of Law of Vladivostok State University.


The legal nature and consequences of the approval of the settlement agreement


Subject/topic The subject of the study is the regulatory and legal provisions of the Institute of settlement agreement in the Russian Federation.

Goals/objectives The purpose of the study is to analyze the legislative provisions governing the procedure for concluding a settlement agreement in the Russian Federation.

Methodology The methodological basis is represented by a set of methods of scientific cognition of objective legal reality applied during preparation and writing: comparative legal method, formal legal method, logical method, method of legal modeling.

Conclusion Optimization of the state apparatus, increasing its efficiency, the speed of solving the tasks facing the public authorities, reducing the cost of functioning of state institutions – is currently being achieved by improving administrative and organizational processes and digital technologies. However, such a technocratic approach, which prevails now, has not yet allowed to reduce either the speed of consideration and resolution of judicial (both criminal and civil) cases, nor the size of the judicial corps, nor the level of burden on judges (which, according to the number of cases under consideration, is three times greater than it falls on a judge of any state Of the European Union). The qualitative increase in the complexity of civil cases is also of some importance. Perhaps the failure of this approach lies in the fact that it misses the opportunities for optimizing public-management processes inherent in civil society itself. We are talking, in particular, about the institution of a settlement agreement, which already exists in the domestic civil procedural legislation, which is actively used in foreign legal systems (both European, Anglo-American, and Asian), but which, for strange reasons, are not in demand in Russia at all.

Keywords: civil law contract, settlement agreement, parties to the settlement agreement, the content of the settlement agreement, conciliation procedure, approval of the settlement agreement, substantive consequences of approval of the settlement agreement, civil procedural consequences of approval of the settlement agreement, liability for violation of the terms of the settlement agreement, contempt of court.


Gureev (2013) – Gureev V.A. Conflict as the essential reason for the emergence of the institution of a settlement agreement [Konflikt kak sushhnostnaya prichina vozniknoveniya instituta mirovogo soglasheniya] V.A. Gureev // Laws of Russia: experience, analysis, practice. – 2013. – No. 8. – pp. 3-6.

Zinchenko (1981) – Zinchenko A. I. Amicable agreements in civil proceedings [Mirovy`e soglasheniya v grazhdanskom sudoproizvodstve]: dis…. cand. jurid. Sciences: 12.00.03 / Zinchenko Alexander Ivanovich. – Saratov, 1981. – 167 p.

Kochergin (2011) – Kochergin K. V. Settlement agreement in the arbitration process [Mirovoe soglashenie v arbitrazhnom processe]: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences: 12.00.15 / Kirill Vladimirovich Kochergin. – St. Petersburg, 2011. – 222 p.

Chernikova (2006) – Chernikova O. S. Settlement agreement as a procedure in the arbitration process: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences [Mirovoe soglashenie kak procedura v arbitrazhnom processe]: 12.00.15 / Chernikova Olga Sergeevna. – Saratov, 2006. – 192 p.

Knyazev (2004) – Knyazev D. V. Settlement agreement in the arbitration process: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences [Mirovoe soglashenie v arbitrazhnom processe]: 12.00.15 / Knyazev Dmitry Vladimirovich. – Tomsk, 2004. – 212 p.

Korobov (2003) – Korobov O. A. Settlement agreement in insolvency and bankruptcy procedures [Mirovoe soglashenie v procedurax nesostoyatel`nosti, bankrotstva]: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences: 12.00.15 / Oleg Aleksandrovich Korobov. – Volgograd, 2003. – 191 p.

Olevinsky (2002) – Olevinsky E. Y. Settlement agreement as a bankruptcy procedure: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences [Mirovoe soglashenie kak procedura bankrotstva]: 12.00.03 / Olevinsky Eduard Yurievich. – Moscow, 2002. – 164 p.

Davydenko (2004) – Davydenko D. L. Settlement agreement as a means of settling private law disputes: according to the law of Russia and some foreign countries [Mirovoe soglashenie kak sredstvo uregulirovaniya chastnopravovy`x sporov: po pravu Rossii i nekotory`x zarubezhny`x stran]: dis. … cand. jurid. Sciences: 12.00.03 / Dmitry Leonidovich Davydenko. – Moscow, 2004. – 257 p.

Rozhkova (2004) – Rozhkova M.A. Settlement agreement in the arbitration court: problems of theory and practice [Mirovoe soglashenie v arbitrazhnom sude: problemy` teorii i praktiki] / M.A. Rozhkova. – Moscow: Statute, 2004. – 348 p.

Lazarev (2006) – Lazarev S. V. Settlement agreement in civil proceedings: dis. … cand. juri d. Sciences [Mirovoe soglashenie v grazhdanskom sudoproizvodstve]: 12.00.15 / Lazarev Sergey Viktorovich. – Yekaterinburg, 2006. – 203 p.

Vaskovsky (2003) – Vaskovsky E.V. Textbook of civil procedure [Uchebnik grazhdanskogo processa] / Edited by V. Tomsinov. – Moscow: Zertsalo, 2003. – 444 p.

Zheruolis (1969) – Zheruolis I.A. The essence of the Soviet civil process [Sushhnost` sovetskogo grazhdanskogo processa] / I.A. Zheruolis. – Vilnius: Mintis, 1969. – 204 p.

Ghukasyan (1970) – Ghukasyan R.E. The problem of interest in Soviet civil procedural law [Problema interesa v sovetskom grazhdanskom processual`nom prave] / Ed. by M.A. Vikut. – Saratov: Volga Book Publishing House, 1970. – 190 p.

Malyshev (2018) – Malyshev K.I. Course of civil proceedings [Kurs grazhdanskogo sudoproizvodstva] / K.I. Malyshev. – Moscow: Book on Demand, 2018. – 472 p

Makarenko (2020) – Makarenko N.N. Settlement agreement and other results of the judicial reconciliation procedure [Mirovoe soglashenie i drugie rezul`taty` procedury` sudebnogo primireniya] / N.N. Makarenko // Legal research. – 2020. – No. 8. – pp. 1-11.

Voevodov (2022) – Voevodov K.S. Agreement on the payment of alimony, judicial settlement transaction and settlement agreement [Soglashenie ob uplate alimentov, sudebnaya mirovaya sdelka i mirovoe soglashenie] / K.S. Voevodov, V.G. Nestoliy // Notary. – 2022. – No. 4. – pp. 31-35.

Shokhova (1996) – Shokhova E.L. Forms, parties and contents of the settlement agreement [Formy`, storony` i soderzhanie mirovogo soglasheniya] / E.L. Shokhova // Skif. Questions of student science. – 2021. – No. 10. – pp. 227-231.

Cordray (1996) – Cordray M. M. Amicable agreements and the Supreme Court / Margaret Meriwether Cordray // Hastings Law Journal. – 1996. – No. 1. – pp. 8-74.


Elena A. Zolotovskaya

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Institute of Law of Vladivostok State University.


Procedural forms of the defendant's protection of his interests in the claim proceedings


Subject/topic. The subject of this study is the norms of the current Russian civil procedure legislation regulating the specifics of the defendant’s protection of his interests in the claim proceedings in the courts of general jurisdiction.

Goals/task. The purpose of this study is to analyze and summarize the legal means that the civil procedural legislation provided to the defendant to protect his rights and legally protected interests, to determine common approaches to their research.

Methodology. The methodological basis of the proposed research is the general provisions of logic, philosophy, theory of law, civil and civil procedural and arbitration procedural law of Russia. The research uses general logical methods (analysis, synthesis), dialectical, statistical, system-structural, historical, logical-legal, comparative-legal, concrete-sociological and other methods of scientific cognition.

Conclusion. In the content of this scientific article, the author examines the norms of the current Russian civil procedure legislation regulating the specifics of the defendant’s protection of his interests in the claim proceedings in the courts of general jurisdiction. The analysis of the means by which the defendant can defend his interests under Russian civil procedural law is carried out. As a result, it can be concluded that the correctness of court decisions, as well as the associated timeliness – they depend not only on a full and comprehensive investigation by the court of all the case materials, not only on the correct determination of the procedural position (or procedural status) of each person entering or being involved (at the initiative of the relevant party, prosecutor or court) in the process, but also on the initiative of the person most interested in a favorable outcome of the case, on, whether all his possibilities for protecting his interests were correctly identified, whether all measures were taken to exercise his right to protection. This provision also applies to the defendant.

Key words: the claim, claim proceedings, the basis of the claim, the subject of the claim, the defendant, means of protecting the interests of the defendant, denial of the claim, objections to the claim, counterclaim.


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Pyatietov (1991) – Pyatietov I.M. Protection of the interests of the defendant in the Soviet civil process [Zashchita interesov otvetchika v sovetskom grazhdanskom processe]. Moskva: VYUZI, 1991. 84 s.

Moleva (1993) – Moleva G.V. The right to judicial protection of the defendant: dis. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.03 [Pravo na sudebnuyu zashchitu otvetchika: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.03]. Saratov, 1993. 147 s.

Trashkova (2009) – Trashkova N.M. Defense of the defendant in civil proceedings: dis. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.15 [Zashchita otvetchika v grazhdanskom processe: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.15]. Moskva, 2009. 197 s.

Mirolyubova (2009) – Mirolyubova O.G. Protection of family interests in divorce proceedings: diss. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.15 [Zashchita interesov sem’i v brakorazvodnom processe: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.15]. YAroslavl’, 2009. 220 s.

Shegeda (2009) – Shegida E. A. Institute of Procedural Complicity in the Civil Procedural Law of Russia: diss. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.15 [Institut processual’nogo souchastiya v grazhdanskom processual’nom prave Rossii: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.15]. Voronezh, 2009. 180 s.

Grel (2006) – Grel Ya.V. Abuse of procedural rights by the parties in civil and arbitration proceedings: dis. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.15 [Zloupotrebleniya storon processual’nymi pravami v grazhdanskom i arbitrazhnom processe: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.15]. Novosibirsk, 2006. 207 s.

Khesin (2004) – Khesin D.A. Means of protecting the interests of the defendant in civil and arbitration proceedings // Arbitration and civil procedure [Sredstva zashchity interesov otvetchika v grazhdanskom i arbitrazhnom sudoproizvodstvah // Arbitrazhnyj i grazhdanskij process]. 2004. N 1. S. 8-12.

The Great Russian Legal Encyclopedia / Ed. by A.Ya. Sukharev [Bol’shaya rossijskaya yuridicheskaya enciklopediya / Otv. red. A.YA. Suharev]. Moskva: Infra-M, 2006. 1110 s.

Civil process / Ed. Yu.K. Osipov. [Grazhdanskij process / Otv. red. YU.K. Osipov]. Moskva: Volters-Kluver, 2005. 702 s.

Commentary to the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation / Edited by V.V. Yarkov [Kommentarij k Grazhdanskomu processual’nomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii / Pod red. V.V. YArkova]. Moskva: Norma, 2021.  921 s.

Savchenko (2021) – Savchenko K.K., Shevchenko G.V. Evolution of the doctrine of counterclaim in the Russian doctrine of procedural law // Actual problems and prospects of the development of modern science [Evolyuciya ucheniya o vstrechnom iske v rossijskoj doktrine processual’nogo prava // Aktual’nye problemy i perspektivy razvitiya sovremennoj nauki // Sbornik nauchnyh trudov po materialam VII Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii].  Stavropol’, 2021. S. 338-344.

Pochaeva (2009) – Pochaeva A.N. Features of administrative actions of the parties in cases arising from marital and family relations: abstract. … cand. jurid. sciences’: 12.00.03 [Osobennosti rasporyaditel’nyh dejstvij storon po delam, voznikayushchim iz brachno-semejnyh otnoshenij: avtoref. … kand. yurid. nauk: 12.00.03]. Moskva, 2009. 28 s.

Civil procedure. Textbook / Edited by M.K. Treushnikov [Grazhdanskij process. Uchebnik / Pod red. M.K. Treushnikova].  Moskva: ID Gorodec, 2021. 992 s.

Commentary to the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation / Ed. by G.P. Ivliev [Kommentarij k Grazhdanskomu processual’nomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii / Otv. red. G.P. Ivliev]. Moskva: YUrajt, 2002. 558 s.

Kiyashko (2003) – Kiyashko V.A. Recognition of the transaction as failed (the contract is not concluded): procedural issues / Law and economics [Priznanie sdelki nesostoyavshejsya (dogovora nezaklyuchennym): processual’nye voprosy // Pravo i ekonomika]. 2003. N 5. S. 16-19.


Yuri V. Stepanenko

The Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Law University named after O.E. Kutafin (MSWU) », Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Administrative Law and Process, University of O.E. Kutafina (MSWU); chief researcher of the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia; Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow

Review of the monograph M.V. Anisiforova Administrative legal incentive


The article provides a scientific analysis of the content of the monograph by Maryam Vladimirovna Anisiforova, devoted to the little-studied problem of administrative and legal incentives. The relevance of the topic is confirmed, the positive aspects of the study are noted: original author’s conclusions, judgments, conclusions, statements, arguments, suggestions and recommendations that are important both for public law doctrine and for the practice of state and municipal government. The advantage of the study is its interdisciplinary nature, it is based on the provisions of jurisprudence, management theory, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, morality, ethics, ethics and other areas of scientific knowledge. Attention is drawn to certain moments of the monographic study, which can lead to further scientific discussion. The final evaluation of the monograph is given.

Keywords: legal incentives, administrative and legal incentives, legal incentives, legal motivation.


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Orlov (1987) – Orlov A.I. Stimulation as a method of state economic management: administrative and legal research: author. dis…cand. legal Sciences. Saratov [Stimulirovaniye kak metod gosudarstvennogo upravleniya ekonomikoy: administrativno-pravovoye issledovaniye: Avtoref. dis…kand. yuridicheskikh nauk. Saratov], 1987.

Anisiforova (2023) – Anisiforova M.V. Administrative and legal stimulation: monograph. – Moscow: Prospekt [Administrativno-pravovoye stimulirovaniye: monografiya. – Moskva: prospekt], 2023. – 208 p.