The Modern Laywer №3(36)





Anna A. Berdnikova

Assistant of the department of legal regulation of economic activities of the Law faculty in the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation. E-mail:

Legal enforcement of government interventions in the grain market of the Russian Federation (historical and legal analysis)


Subject / Topic This article deals with the historical stages in the development of the country’s food policy since the time of the Russian Empire. The analysis of regulatory documents is carried out. It became later the basis of the legislative framework governing the grain industry of the country. The article examines the legal support of state commodity and procurement interventions in the grain market and its development trends. The grain intervention mechanism was firstly applied in the Russian Federation in the 2000s. It is relatively young in comparison with the other agrarian developed countries. First of all, grain interventions in Russia are a measure aimed at maintaining the level of profitability of domestic agricultural producers, and as well as a measure of state regulation of the entire grain market of the country.

Goals / Objectives Interventions are also carried out to stabilize the price level on the entire grain market of the country in addition to supporting domestic producers. The mechanism for conducting public procurement and commodity interventions is used by the state with the purpose of legal regulation of the market for agricultural products, raw materials and foodstuffs. Such a mechanism ensures the implementation of the main directions of agricultural policy.

Methodology We used both general scientific (comparison, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization, a systematic approach) and special scientific research methods, including formal legal, comparative legal method and legal modeling.

Conclusion and Relevance The present legal framework is not perfect which regulates the country’s grain industry and the mechanism for conducting state commodity and procurement interventions. In the long-term Development Strategy of the domestic grain complex, one of the goals is to modernize the current legislation. The development of the mechanism for carrying out grain interventions and its legal support is of great importance. Using various levers of government, Russia’s domestic and foreign food policy made the country influential in the international food trade for the first time since before the Bolshevik Revolution.

Keywords: legal regulation, legal enforcement, government procurement and commodity interventions, food policy, grain market, grain.


Ruchkina (2014) – Ruchkina G.F. Features of state regulation of certain types of entrepreneurial activity [Osobennosti gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya otdel’nyh vidov predprinimatel’skoj deyatel’nosti] // Economics. Taxes. Right. – 2014. No. 4, Pp. 110-113.Antonova (2020) – Antonova E.G. State interventions as a means of regulating the grain market [Gosudarstvennye intervencii kak sredstvo regulirovaniya zernovogo rynka] // Competitive law. 2020. № 1. Pp. 37-41.Minina (2017) – Minina E.L. The history of the formation and development of agrarian legislation in Russia [Istoriya stanovleniya i razvitiya agrarnogo zakonodatel’stva v Rossii] // Agrarian and Land Law. – 2017. No. 7 (151), Pp. 31-39.Zhukov (1998) – Zhukov V.I., Eskov G.S., Pavlov V.S. The history of Russia. [Istoriya Rossii] Tutorial. – M .: MGSU “Soyuz”, 1998.Proskuryakova (2010) – Proskuryakova N. A. Peasant land bank [Krest’yanskij pozemel’nyj bank] // Great Russian encyclopedia. Volume 15. Moscow, 2010.Evdokimova (2016) – Evdokimova, N. E. Historical experience of state regulation of the grain market in Russia [Istoricheskij opyt gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya zernovogo rynka v Rossii] / N. E. Evdokimova // Problems of development of the agro-industrial complex of the region. – 2016. – T. 25. – № 1-1 (25), Pp. 217-221.Evdokimova (2011) – Evdokimova N.Ye. Procurement interventions in the grain market [Zakupochnye intervencii na zernovom rynke] // APK: economics, management. 2011.№., Pp. 64-68.Doroshchuk (2016) – Doroshchuk A.I. State interventions in the grain market: problems of budget expenditures and the effectiveness of market regulation [Gosudarstvennye intervencii na rynke zerna: problemy byudzhetnyh raskhodov i effektivnosti regulirovaniya rynka] // Bulletin of APK Stavropol. 2016.No. 2 (22), Pp. 267-272.Kosyakin (2009) – Kosyakin A.S. Grain Interventions – “Old-New” Mechanism of Effective Market Regulation [Zernovye intervencii — «Staryj-novyj» mekhanizm effektivnogo regulirovaniya rynka] // ETAP. 2009. № 1, Pp. 74-77.Berdnikova (2020) – Berdnikova A.A. Some issues of legal regulation of grain quality (on the example of Russia and Canada) [Nekotorye voprosy pravovogo regulirovaniya kachestva zerna (na primere Rossii i Kanady)] // Modern lawyer. 2020.No. 4 (33), pp. 33-44.Vorobieva (2014) – Vorobieva I.P. State regulation of the national economy: textbook [Gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie nacional’noj ekonomiki: uchebnoe posobie] / scientific. ed. Yu.S. Nekhoroshev. – Tomsk: TSU Publishing House, 2014.


Elena D. Kostyleva

Candidate of law, associate Professor senior researcher of the direction constitutional and legal studies Center for justice research FGBOU VPO «Russian state University of justice», Moscow, Россия.


The system of protection of personal rights and freedoms


Subject/theme The concept and justification of the content is constitutional system for the protection of personal rights and freedoms in the RF.

Goals/objectives Disclosure is the esence of the system and determination of ways to optimize its operation. Analysis of the constitutional system of protection in personal rights and freedoms in combination with the identification of practical problems of their implementation.

Methodology methods: concretization, interpretation, complex legal analysis.

Conclusion The legal basis of the system for the protection of personal rights includes interpretative and law-enforcement normative acts that determine the state’s activities for the protection of rights, which form the doctrinal, conceptual basis of protection and have a quasi-normative character that reflects the paradigms of state policy. The real protection of personal rights is possible in the conditions of society, based is the principle of uncononality, when the state does is have the right to explain its human rights inaction by the lack of appropriate mechanisms. The system of protection of personal rights is a set of authorities whose main competence is to organize a single legal regime that protects personal human rights on the basis of norms and principles. The system of judicial protection consists of: independent protection of one’s rights by an individual; protection on the initiative of an individual, but through a public system (claim proceedings); public institutions in the private interests of an individual (criminal proceedings). The analysis of the practice of protecting personal rights and freedoms by the courts showed problems related to the workload of judges, the execution of court decisions and responsibility for their non-execution.

Keywords: judicial protection, personal rights and freedoms, the Constitution of the RF, the Constitutional Court of the RF.


Fedotova O. V. (2014) – Fedotova O. V. The main aspects of judiceal protection is a guarante of human and civil rights and freedoms [Osnovnyye aspekty sudebnoy zashchity kak garantii obespecheniya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina]   //Scientific notes of the Orel State University. [Uchenyye zapiski Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta]  2014. No. 2 (58). pp. 274-279.

Kostyleva E. D. (2008) – Kostyleva E. D. Personal human rights in the Russian Federation and the standards of the Council of Europe: constitutional and legal problems of regulation and protection [Lichnyye prava cheloveka v Rossiyskoy Federatsii i standarty Soveta Evropy: konstitutsionno-pravovyye problemy regulirovaniya i zashchity]   //Dissertation for the degre of Candidate of Legal Sciences. [Dissertatsiya na soiskaniye uchenoy stepeni kandidata yuridicheskikh nauk] M. 2008. p. 218.

Kostyleva E. D. (2021) – Kostyleva E. D. Judicial protection of personal rights and freedoms [Sudebnaya zashchita lichnykh prav i svobod].  // Modern Lawyer  [Sovremennyy yurist]. 2021. No 2 (35). S. 45-55.

Andrianova V. V. (2012) – Andrianova V. V. Personal human rights – a legal category [Lichnyye prava cheloveka – pravovaya kategoriya]   //Gaps in Russian legislation. [Probely v rossiyskom zakonodatelstve]   2012. No. 6. pp. 13-16.

Zhadan V. N. (2021) – Zhadan V. N. On constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen in Russia, their implementation and protection [O konstitutsionnykh pravakh i svobodakh cheloveka i grazhdanina v Rossii. ikh realizatsii i zashchite] // State and law in the modern world: problems of theory and history. [Gosudarstvo i pravo v sovremennom mire: problemy teorii i istorii]   2021. No. 2. pp. 4-11.

Zheleznov B. L. (2007) – Zheleznov B. L. The constitutional mechanism of state protection of human rights [Konstitutsionnyy mekhanizm gosudarstvennoy zashchity prav cheloveka]  // Bulletin of Economics, Law and Sociology. [Vestnik ekonomiki. prava i sotsiologii]    2007. No. 1. pp. 76-80.

Benyaminova S. A. (2018) – Benyaminova S. A. The right to constitutional legal proceedings is a element of the states of a citizen [Pravo na konstitutsionnoye sudoproizvodstvo kak element statusa grazhdanina]   // Actual problems of Russian law. [Aktualnyye problemy rossiyskogo prava]  2018. No. 10. pp. 143-149.

Golovkova A. Yu. (2019) – Golovkova A. Yu. Accessible and effective mechanisms of judicial protection of constitutional human rights and freedoms as indicators of the rule of law [Dostupnoct i effektivnost mekhanizmov sudebnoy zashchity konstitutsionnykh prav i svobod cheloveka kak pokazateley verkhovenstva prava] // Saratov University Press. Economy. Management. Pravo. [Izdatelstvo Saratovskogo universiteta. Ekonomika. Upravleniye. Pravo.] Vol. 19. Issue 3. 2019. pp. 335-343.

Belousov D. V. (2016) – Belousov D.V. Constitutional and legal bases of judicial protection in the Russian Federation and actual problems of realization of the right to judicial protection [Konstitutsionno-pravovyye osnovy sudebnoy zashchity v Rossiyskoy Federatsii i aktualnyye problemy realizatsii prava na sudebnuyu zashchitu]   // Electronic Bulletin of the Rostov Socio-Economic Institute. [Elektronnyy vestnik Rostovskogo sotsialno-ekonomicheskogo instituta.] Issue # 1 (January-March). 2016. pp. 25-32.

Panteleev V. Yu., Smorodina O. S. (2019) – Panteleev V.Yu., Smorodina O. S. Building an effective system for protecting citizens ‘ rights as the main task of judicial reform in Russia [Postroyeniye effektivnoy sistemy zashchity prav grazhdan kak osnovnaya zadacha sudebnoy reformy v Rossii] // Russian law: education, practice, science.[Rossiyskoye pravo: obrazovaniye. praktika. nauka.] 2019. No. 1. pp. 21-26.


Roman B. Logvin

Leading lawyer in the analytical and corporate sector of the State Autonomous Institution “Research and Design Institute of the General Plan of the City of Moscow”, postgraduate student of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow State Law University named after O.E. Kutafina (Moscow State Law Academy)”, Moscow.


Control over the lawmaking of federal executive bodies


Subject / topic This article examines certain structural and functional aspects of the organization and activities of federal executive bodies.

Goals / objectives The purpose of this work is to develop theoretical proposals for the normative consolidation of a new function of federal executive bodies – the function of monitoring lawmaking activities, the implementation of which is designed to reduce the risks of excessive legal regulation.

Methodology The methodological basis of the work is the structural-functional and systemic research methods, the use of which makes it possible to consider federal executive bodies as a complex developing system, to trace the structural links between various elements of the system, and also to formulate theoretical proposals for improving the regulatory support of the functions of these bodies.

Conclusion In accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation, the actual impact assessment procedure is the main mechanism for ensuring control over the law-making activities of federal executive bodies. In this regard, the organization and conduct of the actual impact assessment should be carried out continuously as part of the performance of the function of state control over lawmaking activities. Thus, the proposed normative consolidation of a new function of federal executive bodies – the function of control over law-making activities, which will be carried out within the framework of state administration. The normative consolidation and provision of the new function of the federal executive bodies is necessary in order to solve the problem of excessive regulation and leveling the risks of departmental lawmaking for the purposes of control in the conditions of combining the functions of legal regulation and control (supervision) within the competence of the federal ministry.

Key words: executive power, system and structure of federal executive bodies, functions of federal executive bodies, state administration.


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Tkach (2005) – Tkach A.N. Administrative reform and business: results, problems, prospects [Administrativnaya reforma i biznes: itogi, problemy, perspektivy] // Law and Economics [Pravo i ekonomika] 2005. № 4. P. 3-17.

Malysheva (2011) – Malysheva M.A. Theory and methods of modern public administration: study guide. allowance. [Teoriya i metody sovremennogo gosudarstvennogo upravleniya: ucheb.-metod. posobie] SPb. Department of Operational Printing, National Research University Higher School of Economics [SPb.: Otdel operativnoj poligrafii NIU VSHE – Sankt-Peterburg] – St. Petersburg, 2011.

Belsky (1997) – Belsky K.S.  On the functions of the executive power [Bel’skij K.S. O funkciyah ispolnitel’noj vlasti] // State and law [Gosudarstvo i pravo]. 1997. № 3. S. 14 – 21.

Nozdrachev (2012) – Nozdrachev A.F. Legal regulation of state control. [Pravovoe regulirovanie gosudarstvennogo kontrolya] Resp. ed. A.F. Nozdrachev. M., 2012.

Zubarev (2018) – Zubarev S.M. On the current stage of supervisory activity in the Russian Federation [O sovremennom etape nadzornoj deyatel’nosti v Rossijskoj Federacii] // Bulletin of the University named after O.E. Kutafina (Moscow State Law Academy) [Vestnik Universiteta imeni O.E. Kutafina (MGYUA)] 2018. №1. P.13-23.

Rossinsky (2019) – Rossinsky B.V. Implementation of the concepts of administrative reform  [Realizaciya koncepcij administrativnoj reformy] // Bulletin of the University named after O.E. Kutafina (Moscow State Law Academy) [Vestnik Universiteta imeni O.E. Kutafina (MGYUA) ]. 2019. № 1. S. 31-38.

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Kocherin (2000) – Kocherin E.A. Fundamentals of state and administrative control [Osnovy gosudarstvennogo i upravlencheskogo kontrolya] M .: Filin, 2000.

Kozlov (2007) – Kozlov Y.M. Administrative law [Administrativnoe pravo]. M .: Norma, 2007.

Kobzar-Frolova, Vinogradova (2021) – Kobzar-Frolova M.N., Vinogradova E.V. Executive power in the system of public power in the light of new constitutional realities [Ispolnitel’naya vlast’ v sisteme publichnoj vlasti v svete novyh konstitucionnyh realij] // Legal policy and legal life. [Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn’] 2021. № 1.P. 250-262.


Irina A. Nesmeianova

Сandidate of legal sciences, associate professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Operations at Law Faculty Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail:

National interests in the sphere of inheritance law and their regulation by the civil code of the russian federation



Subject/topic The article considers the novelties of inheritance law in the context of the use of world experience in the modern legal system of Russia and as a component of national interests. The study of national interests in the field of inheritance law is conditioned by the need to expand the freedom of discretion and improve the standard of living of citizens of the Russian Federation. Concretization of the signs of national interest will contribute to social justice, social stability, economic well-being, and the relationship between society and the state. Federal laws adopted in recent years expand the possibilities of the testator, but the study and analysis of legislative structures and international experience is necessary for the progressive development and improvement of inheritance law in the Russian Federation.

Goals/tasks The purpose of the study is to analyze certain provisions of

civil legislation in the field of inheritance law.

Methodology The methodological basis of the research consists of: general scientific, private scientific methods: dialectical, analysis, synthesis, comparative legal and formal legal.

Conclusion National interests, being at the same time the basis of the state policy of the Russian Federation, take into account and use the world experience in the modern legal system of Russia. However, the lack of their own traditional experience in implementing borrowed legislative structures causes problems in the application of legislative innovations, which is expressed in the lack of regulation of law enforcement.

Keywords. World experience, national interests, civil law, inheritance relations, inheritance contracts, joint wills of spouses, inheritance funds.


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Khabrieva (2005) – Khabrieva T.Ya. National interests and legislative priorities of Russia [Nacional’nye interesy i zakonodatel’nye prioritety Rossii// Journal of Russian Law]. 2005. N 12. p. 19-20. SPS ConsultantPlus.

Saidov, Kashinskaya (2005) – Saidov A. Kh., Kashinskaya L. F. National security and national interests: interrelation and interaction (experience of political and legal analysis) [Nacional’naya bezopasnost’ i nacional’nye interesy: vzaimosvyaz’ i vzaimodejstvie (opyt politiko-pravovogo analiza) ]  / / Journal of Russian Law. 2005. № 12. SPS ConsultantPlus.

Belyaev, Bidova (2020) – Belyaev V.P., Bidova B.B. The essence of national interests: a general theoretical aspect [Sushchnost’ nacional’nyh interesov: obshcheteoreticheskij aspekt] // Actual problems of Russian law. 2020. № 7. p. 11-21. SPS ConsultantPlus.

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Mikhailova (2020) – Mikhailova I. A. Some aspects of modernization of inheritance law [Nekotorye aspekty modernizacii nasledstvennogo prava / / Inheritance law]. 2020. № 1. p. 3-7. SPS ConsultantPlus.

Schennikova (2020) – Schennikova L.V. Social orientation of civil law regulation in the reflection of the norms of Russian inheritance law Social’naya napravlennost’ grazhdansko-pravovogo regulirovaniya v otrazhenii norm rossijskogo nasledstvennogo prava] // Notary, 2020, № 2. SPS ConsultantPlus.

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Khodyreva (2020) – Khodyreva E.A. “Estate planning” and the choice of the type of inheritance order by the spouses [“Estate planning” i vybor suprugami vida nasledstvennogo rasporyazheniya]  // Bulletin of the Perm University. Legal sciences. 2020. № 2. p. 364-387. SPS ConsultantPlus.


Vladislava A. Chirkova

Applicant of Department of Civil Law at The Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow. E-mail:


Scientific adviser: Alla P. Adamenko, Candidate of Law, Associate Professor of Department of Civil Law of The Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow.


Traditions and innovations of corporate governance in a peasant farm


Importance The subject of this research is legal acts, judicial practice, scientific literature on the topic “Traditions and innovations of corporate governance in the peasant (farmer) economy”.

Objective The purpose of this study is to study corporate governance in a peasant (farmer) economy due to the existing features as a traditionally formed family and labor association and as a corporate legal entity.

To achieve the formulated goal, the following tasks are set:

– to determine the features of corporate peasant (farmer) farms created from traditional family and labor associations of citizens;

– to determine the features of corporate governance in the peasant (farmer) economy.

Methods The methodological basis of the research consists in the use of general scientific (comparison, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization, a systematic approach) and private scientific research methods: formal legal, legal modeling, the method of analyzing documents.

Conclusions and Relevance The author has established, firstly, the settlement of legal relations arising during the formation of the supreme body of the KFH, the determination of its powers, as well as the distribution of votes among members is possible through individual self-regulation, until these relations are regulated by law; secondly, the executive body of the farm can act, as before, the head, however, without the need to be a registered individual entrepreneur, as in a contractual farm, and personally-trusting relations between the members of the farm do not exclude the need for individual contractual regulation of legal relations arising between the farm and its head; thirdly, it is recommended to comply with additional principles of corporate governance formulated by the OECD: responsibility, fairness, transparency when creating and operating a corporate farm.

Keywords: peasant farms, corporate legal entity, legal regulation of legal relations, individual contractual regulation of relations, individual self-regulation.


Shitkina (2019) – Corporate Law: Textbook [Korporativnoe pravo: Uchebnik] / Ed. by I. S. Shitkina. – Moscow: Statute [Moskva: Statut], 2019. ISBN 978-5-8354-1472-7 (in the lane).

Ananyeva (2020) – Contractual regulation of the provision of transportation management services [Dogovornoe regulirovanie okazaniya uslug po upravleniyu perevozkami] : abstract of the dis…. doctor of Law: 12.00.03 / Ananyeva Anna Anatolyevna; [Place of defense: Russian State University of Justice]. – Moscow, 2020. – 56 p.

Andreev, Laptev (2020) – Andreev V. K., Laptev V. A., Corporate law of modern Russia: monograph. – 2nd ed., reprint. and additional [Korporativnoe pravo sovremennoy Rossii: monografiya. – 2-e izd., pererab. i dop.]– Moscow: Prospekt [Moskva : Prospekt], 2020. ISBN 978-5-392-28115-2.

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Kulakov (2016) – Kulakov V. V. Law of obligations: problems of improvement and law enforcement // The Sixth Perm Congress of Legal Scientists (Perm, October 16-17, 2015): selected materials [Obyazatel’stvennoe pravo: problemy sovershenstvovaniya i pravoprimeneniya // SHestoj Permskij kongress uchenyh-yuristov (g. Perm’, 16 – 17 oktyabrya 2015 g.): izbrannye materialy] / V. V. Akinfieva, A. A. Ananyeva, S. I. Afanasyeva, etc.; ed. V. G. Golubtsov, O. A. Kuznetsova. M.: Statute [M.: Statut], 2016.

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Igor G Tyutyunnik

Researcher Fellow, Institute of Industrial Policy and Institutional Development, Department of Corporate Finance and Corporate Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Financial University, Moscow, Russia. E–mail:

Legal support of institutional development of industry


Subject / Topic The article analyzes the legal support of the institutional development of industry. The government monitoring revealed a number of negative factors affecting the effectiveness of development institutions: does not correspond to new national development goals; significant duplication of functions with federal executive authorities and commercial organizations. It should be noted that in recent years Russia has faced new challenges that require significant adjustments in the work of development institutions.

Goal / Objectives The legal analysis of legal support of state regulation of institutional support for industrial development is carried out. The main objective of the study is a legal analysis of the ongoing state reform of industrial development institutions, which are normative legal acts.

Methodology The study uses a systematic method by legal analysis of improving the regulatory legal framework for providing institutional support for the development of industry. At the same time, specific instruments of state regulation of the institutional development of industry are used.

Results The main directions of improving the legal support of the institutional development of industry are considered.

Conclusions and Relevance Proposals are given for the regulatory legal framework for the legal support of the institutional development of industry.

Keywords: regulatory legal framework, industry, development institution, industrial development, government regulation, manufacturing industry, improvement of industrial legislation, regulatory legal acts.


Gorokhova (2018) – Gorokhova S.S. On some aspects of the implementation of strategic planning in the Russian Federation [O nekotoryh aspektah osushchestvleniya strategicheskogo planirovaniya v Rossijskoj Federacii], Modern lawyer [Sovremennyj yurist] 2018 № 3. p. 102–114 [in Russian].

Tyutyunnik, Simaeva (2019) – Tyutyunnik I.G., Simaeva E.P. Legal support of the effectiveness of state regulation of industrial development [Pravovoe obespechenie effektivnosti gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya promyshlennogo razvitiya], Modern lawyer. [Sovremennyj yurist] 2019 №1. p. 106–114 [in Russian].

Strenin (2021) – Strenin D.A. Development institutes: theoretical problems of the right status [Instituty razvitiya: teoreticheskie problemy pravogo statusa], Modern lawyer. [Sovremennyj yurist] 2021. № 2. p. 109–117 [in Russian].

Kim (2014) – Kim D.V. Problems of Institutional Support for Managing the Human Resource Potential of Innovative Sectors of the Economy of the Russian Federation [Problemy institucional’noj podderzhki upravleniya kadrovym potencialom innovacionnyh sektorov ekonomiki RF], Scientific Notes of the St. Petersburg University of Management and Economics. [Uchenye zapiski Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta upravleniya i ekonomiki] 2014. № 4. p. 137-142 [in Russian].

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Popadyuk, Bogachev, Abdikeev (2016) – Popadyuk T.G., Bogachev Yu.S., Abdikeev N.M. Institutional support for the formation of points of growth of the innovative economy of Russia [Institutsional’noye obespecheniye formirovaniya tochek rosta innovatsionnoy ekonomiki Rossii], Management sciences. [Upravlencheskiye nauki]. 2016.Vol. 6.№1.p. 43-50 [in Russian].

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Sergey I. Girko

Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia Research Institute, chief research fellow Doctor of Law, professor

Problems of registration and accounting of penitentiary crimes in the Russian Federation


Subject/topic Problems of registration and accounting of penitentiary crimes in the Russian Federation

Goals/tasks In the article, the author, based on the analysis of data on the crime of persons sentenced to imprisonment and held in correctional institutions of the penitentiary system, sentenced to forced labor and held in correctional centers, personnel of institutions and bodies of the penitentiary system, persons who found themselves in the location of a correctional institution for various reasons, contained in the relevant departmental statistical forms, information on the joint criminal activity of convicts and staff of correctional institutions, examines the question of whether officially registered information about the state of penitentiary crime corresponds to its real state. The purpose of the study is a critical analysis of the departmental statistical forms of the Federal Penitentiary Service of the Russian Federation, which take into account the tort and criminal activity of various subjects, including convicts, correctional personnel, persons who found themselves in the location of correctional institutions due to various professional and personal reasons, through the prism of factual information, expert assessments, the conclusion about the adequacy or inadequacy of the reflection of complex information on penitentiary crime in the official departmental statistics. The author’s hypothesis, reflected in the study, is that the officially registered data on penitentiary crime does not correspond to its real state.

Methodology Analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, problem statement, hypothesis building, specification, monitoring.

Conclusion Based on the results of the analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the aggregate information about the state of penitentiary crime distributed in scientific materials and official reports, the high level of its latency, does not reflect the real state of the phenomenon of penitentiary crime in Russia.

Keywords: penitentiary system, correctional institution, latency of penitentiary crime, state of penitentiary crime, subjects of penitentiary crimes.


Vaganov (2012) – Vaganov A. B. Criminological characteristics of penitentiary crime and its prevention. Author of the cand.dis.  [Kriminologicheskaja characteristika penitentciarnoy prestupnosti I ejo preduprejdenije] Chelyabinsk. 2012.

Shalagin (2016) – Shalagin A.E. Criminological characteristics and prevention of crimes committed in places of deprivation of liberty. [Kriminologicheskaja charakteristica I preduprejdenije prestuplenij v mestach lishenija svobody] Bulletin of Economics, Law and Sociology. 2016. No. 1.

Dolgova (2000) – Russian Criminological Encyclopedia [Rossijskaja Kriminologichescaja Entsiclopedija]/ Under the general editorship of A. I. Dolgova. – M., 2000.

Zherebin, Mjrozov,Merkurijev (2005) – Zherebin V. S., Morozov V. M., Merkur’ev V. V., etc. Penitentiary crime: the essence and actual problems of prevention [Penitentciarnaja prestupnost:sostojanije I actualnije problemi preduprejdenija]  Monogr. / Under the general ed. of Yu. I. Kalinin. – Vladimir, 2005.

Gromov (2020) – Gromov V.G. Penitentiary crime. [Penitentsiarnaja prestupnost] Electronic resource – articles/view/%DO%9F%DO… – request from 17.11.2020

Report on the state of crime among persons held in institutions of the penitentiary system of the Russian Federation. Form 2-UIS monthly. Approved by Order of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia No. 675 of 14.08.2019 (latest version).

Gromov (2013) – Gromov V.G. Prevention of crimes of convicts in correctional institutions [Predupregdenije prestupnosty v ispravitelnich utcrejdenijah] Bulletin of the Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 2013. No. 1 (11). pp. 42-43.

Primak (2008) – Primak A.A. On some factors of latency of penitentiary crime [O necotorih factorach latentnosty penitentsiarnoj prestupnosty] //Actual problems of combating crime in the Siberian Federal District. Krasnoyarsk, 2008.

Khokhrin (2014) – Khokhrin S.A. Criminal and executive characteristics of penitentiary crime. [Ugolovno-pravovaja harakteristika penitentsiarnoy prestupnosty] Proceedings of the Tula State University. Economic and Legal Sciences. 2014. No. 2-2.

Information on the activities of correctional centers and sites functioning as correctional centers. Appendix No. 1 to the order of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia dated 27.09.2017 No. 974.

Statistical report work with personnel (form FSIN-7). Access from the Statistics database.

Cleaning and reforming: why the head of the Federal Penitentiary Service demolishes his deputies. Open office. 26.03.2021. – Internet resource – – request from 26.03.2021

The Prosecutor’s Office has identified 130 cases of violations of the rights of prisoners. Internet resource – – request from 09.02.2021

Investigators opened 99 criminal cases against 56 employees of the Federal Penitentiary Service in 2020. Internet resource – -request from 17.02.2021 15. Prison “call centers” and ” corporate events»:the SOE told about the crimes in the system of the Federal Penitentiary Service. – Internetresource – – request from 25.03.2021

Brief description of the state of crime in the Russian Federation for January-December 2020. – Internet resource – https://мвд.рф /reports/item/22678184/ – request from 17.02.2021


Grant A. Movsesyan

3rd year student of the Faculty of Law at Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation.



Research Supervisor: Maxim V. Demchenko, PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity, Faculty of Law Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

The russian legal system and green innovations: environmental standards of the regions


Subject / topic the article considers the environmental standard of the Chelyabinsk region, provides a comparative analysis of its provisions, describes the impact of the environmental standard on industry and other industries, separately considers the need to introduce similar standards in other subjects of the Russian Federation, distinguishes both mandatory and optional provisions of the environmental standard, gives a comprehensive assessment of financial and tax measures to support green business and the provisions of the standard in the field of tourist activity.

Goals / Objectives: analysis of the Environmental Standard of the Chelyabinsk region, consideration of its provisions from the point of view of their possible impact on the ecological environment of the region, making proposals for further improvement of regulatory legal acts of the sphere under consideration.

Methodology: the research is based on general methods of cognition, as well as methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, comparison, and methods of formal logic.

Conclusions: in the course of the study, the key features of the environmental standard of the Chelyabinsk region were identified, such as a large number of original proposals, extensive references to international acts and a language of presentation that is understandable to a simple layman, which allows achieving the goals of the Standard in the near future. In addition, it should also be noted that the environmental standard of the Chelyabinsk Region should serve as a basis for the adoption of similar documents in other subjects of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: green innovations, environmental standard, pollution, emission quotas, environmental legislation negative impact on the environment.


Otto, Bubnova – (2020) Otto I. P., Bubnova Ya. V. Environmental safety of the Russian Federation. Legal aspects [Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ Rossijskoj Federacii. Pravovye aspekty] / / Education and law [Obrazovanie i pravo]. 2020. No. 5., pp. 130-134.

Ponomarev (2013) – Ponomarev M.V. Trends and prospects of improving legislation in the field of waste management of production and consumption [Tendencii i perspektivy sovershenstvovaniya zakonodatel’stva v sfere obrashcheniya s othodami proizvodstva i potrebleniya] / / Journal of Russian Law[ZHurnal rossijskogo prava]. 2013. No. 4 (196), pp. 22-32;

Tulipov (2016) – Tulipov F.M. Legal issues of environmental safety in the processing, disposal and disposal of industrial and consumer waste  [Pravovye voprosy ekologicheskoj bezopasnosti pri pererabotke, utilizacii i zahoronenii othodov proizvodstva i potrebleniya] // Law and order: history, theory, practice [Pravoporyadok: istoriya, teoriya, praktika]. 2016. No. 1, p. 85-90.

Burmatova (2018) – Burmatova O.P. Environmental management as a management tool: opportunities, problems and prospects for use [Ekologicheskij menedzhment kak instrument upravleniya: vozmozhnosti, problemy i perspektivy ispol’zovaniya]// Bulletin of the NGUEU [Vestnik NGUEU]. 2018. No. 2, p. 33-45.

Samodelko (2019) – Samodelko L. S. The role of environmental taxation in ensuring environmental safety and strategic development of the Russian Federation [Rol’ ekologicheskogo nalogooblozheniya v obespechenii ekologicheskoj bezopasnosti i strategicheskogo razvitiya Rossijskoj Federacii]/ / Bulletin of the GUU [Vestnik GUU]. 2019. No. 4. pp. 111-117.

Kirichenko (2019) – Kirichenko P.N. On improving administrative responsibility for violations of the legislation on waste management [O sovershenstvovanii administrativnoj otvetstvennosti za narusheniya zakonodatel’stva ob obrashchenii s othodami] // Bulletin of the BSU [Vestnik BGU]. 2019. No. 2 (40), p. 185-200.

Abieva (2020) – Abieva E. R. The problem of environmental migration in the context of concepts of environmental management and environmental diplomacy [Problema ekologicheskoj migracii v kontekste koncepcij ekologicheskogo menedzhmenta i ekologicheskoj diplomatii] // Izvestiya Irkutsk State University. Series: Political Science. Religious studies. 2020. №31, c.36-44.

Vasiliev (2016) – Vasiliev F.P. Industrial waste and their turnover: administrative and legal regulation at the present stage in Russia and its improvement(from the series “Transport Security”) [Proizvodstvennye othody ih oborot: administrativno-pravovoe regulirovanie na sovremennom etape v Rossii i ego sovershenstvovanie(iz serii «Transportnaya bezopasnost’»)]// Tavrichesky Scientific Observer [Tavricheskij nauchnyj obozrevatel’]. 2016. No. 4 (9), p. 109-132.

Luneva (2019) – Luneva E. V. Ecological and legal regulation of rational nature management: an interdisciplinary aspect [Ekologo-pravovoe regulirovanie racional’nogo prirodopol’zovaniya: mezhdisciplinarnyj aspekt] // Bulletin of the O. E. Kutafin University [Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina]. 2019. No. 1 (53), pp. 137-147.

Sergeev (2019) Sergeev A. Yu. The legal nature of relations on the use and protection of land in the use of mineral resources [Pravovaya priroda otnoshenij po ispol’zovaniyu i ohrane zemel’ pri pol’zovanii nedrami]// Bulletin of the O. E. Kutafin University [Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina]. 2019. No. 1 (53), pp. 169-175.


Peter N. Savenko

3rd year student of the Faculty of Law at Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation



Research Supervisor: Maya Shokotko, Senior Lecturer, Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity, Faculty of Law, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 49 Leningradsky Prospekt, 125167, Moscow


Theoretical and legal analysis of the construction contract in the Russian Federation


Subject / topic: to regulate the relations of the parties in the course of work in order to comply with the legal rights of the customer and the contractor, the parties conclude a contract. In Roman law, there was the hiring of things, the hiring of services, and the hiring of work (contract). In Roman law, a contract was characterized by the fact that the parties agreed on the need to achieve a specific result, and not on the order of the work itself. During the construction process, contractual and other relations are formed. The need for legal regulation of this type of relationship is of increased interest both on the part of scientific researchers, and on the part of the business community and authorities. A contract contract is common in the field of commodity and money turnover, along with a contract of sale and a contract of delivery. Of course, the contract contract needs special research in order to clearly distinguish it from related contracts of a civil nature.

Goals / Objectives: the purpose of the work is to analyze the construction contract from the perspective of the theory of civil law and make recommendations for improving legislation in the field of the topic under consideration.

Methodology: the methods used in this article are generalization, systematization, analysis, analogy, as well as the comparative legal method

Conclusions: as a conclusion to this article, it is proposed to legally distinguish the content of the rights and obligations of the parties to the construction contract, which will lead to the absence of an ambiguous interpretation of a particular norm of civil legislation.

Keywords: construction contract, contractor, subcontractor, complex of works, construction.


Kruglov (2019) – Kruglov S. K. The concept and main problems in the contract of construction contract [Ponyatie i osnovnye problemy v dogovore stroitel’nogo podryada] // Legal issues of construction [YUridicheskie voprosy stroitel’stva], 2019. – No. 3. – p. 121-126;

Galitskaya (2018) – Galitskaya A. A. Construction contract contract in law enforcement practice  [Dogovor stroitel’nogo podryada v pravoprimenitel’noĭ praktike]// Bulletin of the Academy of Law and Management [Vestnik akademii prava i upravleniya], 2018. No. 1 (50). pp. 97-103;

Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part two) of 26.01.1996 N 14-FZ [Electronic resource] / / ATP «Consultant Plus» [Konsul’tant Plyus];

Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation No. 58p of 27.03.02 [Electronic resource] / / ATP «Consultant Plus» [Konsul’tant Plyus];

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods ” United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna Convention on International Contracts for the Sale of Goods)” of 1980 [Electronic resource] // ATP «Consultant Plus» [Konsul’tant Plyus];

Renzhin (2018) – Sergey Renzhin Why customers and contractors always conflict at the construction site [electronic resource] URL: b7d24879a794777e6565586 (accessed 12.04.2021);

The Civil Code of the RSFSR (approved by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on June 11, 1964g.) [Electronic resource] // ATP «Consultant Plus» [Konsul’tant Plyus];

Kruglov (2016) – Kruglov A.V. The concept, essence and essential conditions of the construction contract [Ponyatie, sushchnost’ i sushchestvennye usloviya dogovora stroitel’nogo podryada]// Legal issues of construction [Pravovye voprosy stroitel’stva], 2016. – No. 2. – p. 27-29;

Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 05.03.2007 N 145 (ed. of 07.11.2008) “On the procedure for organizing and conducting state expertise of project documentation and results of engineering surveys” [Electronic resource] // ATP «Consultant Plus» [Konsul’tant Plyus]

Melguy (2005) – Melguy, A. E. Claims of customers under construction contracts [Pretenzii zakazchikov po dogovoram stroitel’nogo podryada]// Accounting in constructionv[Uchet v stroitel’stve], 2005. – No. 2., pp. 24-35;

Panina (2017) – Panina L. V. The subject of unfinished construction as the subject of a construction contract [Predmet nezavershennogo stroitel’stva kak predmet dogovora stroitel’nogo podryada]// Legal World [Yuridicheskiy mir]. 2017g. №16, p. 120-132.


Grigory G. Volkov

Student of the Faculty of Law at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov. E-mail:

Terms to withhold financial sanctions from the total payment amount in russian law: a paradigm shift


Importance This article analyzes the essence of the terms for withholding the amounts of financial sanctions from the total of payment under Russian law. Such an interpretation leads to legal indeterminacy about the capacity of extending the set-off rules to the relationship between the parties, as well as to the unfair allocation of property in bankruptcy. The author draws attention that the withholding clause is in point of fact a contractual set-off of future claims and there is no need for sui generis recognition. In this regard, in order to find the most acceptable legal approach, the relevant foreign experience in regulating contractual set-off is given. Throughout the article, the author justifies the necessity to apply the provisions of the set-off to such terms, bypassing the creation of gaps.

Objective The overriding purpose of this paper should be considered a shifting in the presently prevailing approach, according to which the designated terms are interpreted by the courts as an independent basis of terminating the obligation, rather than set-off.

Methodology Methods of description, comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, legal modeling, forecasting were used.

Conclusion and Relevance The withholding clause should be considered as a kind of offset in the event that there are offsetting claims, which in turn predetermines the extension of the offset provisions to the relationship between the parties. The recognition of the independent nature of the withholding clauses seems to be artificial, although it dominates in practice today. We agree with the authors who believe that Art. 410 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, in which it is established that the statement of one side is sufficient for offset – it is formulated unsuccessfully and gives rise to several interpretations of the norm, which is not normal. It is necessary to amend the above article, indicating that existing and future obligations can be terminated at the will of several persons by contractual offset, not excluding, at the same time, offset as a unilateral deal.

Keywords: terms for withholding sum from total payment, contractual set-off, homogeneous mutual claims, set-off of future claims, financial sanctions, sui generis, set-off in bankruptcy.


Belov (2018) – Belov V.A. Automatic offset of mutual claims: world experience and the provisions of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation [Avtomaticheskiy zachet vzaimnykh trebovaniy: mirovoy opyt i polozheniya Grazhdanskogo kodeksa RF], The Herald of Economic Justice, 2018, No 12.

Bevzenko, Fakhretdinov (2006) – Bevzenko R.S., Fakhretdinov T.R. Offset According to the Civil Code: Experience in Research of the Theoretical Construction and Generalization of Judicial Practice [Zachet v grazhdanskom prave: opyt issledovaniya teoreticheskoi konstruktsii i obobscheniya sudebnoi praktiki]. Moscow, Statut, 2006. 172 p. 44

Robert, Thomas, Benjamin (2009) – Robert A., Thomas G., Benjamin P. Recent Developments in the Law of Set-off’. Toronto: Carswell, Annual Review of Insolvency Law, 2009.

Lachowski (2000) – Lachowski T. Contractual compensation and statutory set-off [dogovornyy zachet i zayavleniye o zachete], Poland, [Przegląd Prawa Handlowego], 2000, No. 9, P. 1-10;

Łukasz, Anna (2017) – Łukasz C., Anna B. Contractual deduction in Polish law [Dogovornyye vychety v pol’skom prave], [Student Scientific Papers, Poland], 2017, Vol. XX, No. 33, P. 22-38


In memory of Stanislav Vyacheslavovich Nikolyukin

On July 6 of this year, a remarkable person passed away, the editor-in-chief of our magazine Stanislav Vyacheslavovich Nikolyukin.
Stanislav Vyacheslavovich possessed remarkable human qualities: sociability, decency, hard work, dedication, conscientiousness, attentiveness and responsiveness. Colleagues, comrades, friends treated him with great respect. A competent and competent specialist on the shoulder was able to solve a variety of and complex issues.
Stanislav Vyacheslavovich – candidate of legal sciences, specialty 12.00.03 – civil law, business law, family law, private international law.
In 2001, he graduated from the Law Faculty of the Russian State Social University with a degree in jurisprudence, in 2007 he defended his Ph.D. thesis on “Arbitration Agreements and the Competence of International Commercial Arbitration (Some Questions of Theory and Practice)”. Since 2009, he has been a member of the Russian Bar Association (Moscow branch). Worked in the Federal Bailiff Service (1999-2005); from 2005 to 2007 he was the head of the legal department of the company; from 2007 to 2009 he was the head of the department of civil law disciplines at the Institute of Business and Politics.
From 2009 to 2018 – Deputy Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, FGOBU Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; from 2018 to 2020 he worked at the Russian State University of Justice.
In science and education, Stanislav Vyacheslavovich’s merits were noted with well-deserved awards: he was awarded the honorary title “Honored Worker of Science and Education of RAE”, he was awarded medals: “V. Leibniz Medal” and “V.I. Vernadsky Silver “.
Stanislav Vyacheslavovich published more than 150 scientific works, including 11 books (textbooks and monographs). Among them are such scientific works as “Foreign trade transactions and customs in commercial turnover: problems and practice of resolving disputes in arbitration”; “Arbitration agreements and the competence of international commercial arbitration. Problems of Theory and Practice “; “Foreign trade transactions and customs in international commercial turnover”; “Civil liability of entrepreneurs in foreign trade”; International Commercial Arbitration; “Purchase and sale of goods in foreign trade”; “Mediation agreements”; “Fundamentals of legal regulation of entrepreneurial activity in the Russian Federation”; “Legal regulation of foreign trade relations”; “Legal framework for trading in the Russian Federation”; International Commercial Arbitration; “Arbitration mechanisms for the settlement of commercial disputes.”
Stanislav Vyacheslavovich’s scientific articles published in journals recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission at the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia are devoted to topical issues in the field of arbitration disputes, conflicts of civil legislation, the powers of state courts in arbitration proceedings, and other legal problems.
Everyone who knew Stanislav Vyacheslavovich grieves over his premature departure. He will forever remain in our memory…

Editorial Board and Editorial Board
magazine “Modern Lawyer” express a deep
condolences to the family and friends of the deceased.