The Modern Lawyer №3(20)




Vladimir E. Rubanik

Doctor of law, professor of the Department of Legal regulation of economic activities at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Е

Problems of legal regulation of property relations in the USSR during the period of «Perestroika» and their reflection in literature



In the works of historians, economists and lawyers, social reforms of “Perestroika” period are shown as a forerunner of the further large-scale transformations of the 1990s that affected all social groups and segments of society. They also contain interesting data on the most important turning points in the political processes of the country, which directly affected social processes and the development of regulation of property relations.


The aim of the study is to analyze and summarize changes in property relations that took place during the period of “perestroika” and laid the foundation for their future evolution in the Russian Federation – that is why the researchers’ interest in this problem is quite justified.


The inherent methods of historical and legal science, the principles and methods of historicism, historical determinism and objectivity, as well as the dialectical method of cognition, which includes the whole complex of scientific methods: comparative, structural, formally legal.

Conclusions and Relevance

It seems relevant to address various aspects of the problem of legal regulation of property relations in different periods of development of the domestic tradition of law – including the period of “perestroika”, which caused many problems of the state and legal life of modern Russia. In addition, in the mid-1990s. in historiography prevailed the notion of the regularity and inevitability of the USSR’s socio-economic crisis in the years of “perestroika”. Researchers focused on the manifestations of mass discontent of the population, low standards of living, introduction of the card distribution system, and so on.


legal regulation; property; the period of “perestroika”; political processes; the post-Soviet space; purpose of restructuring; historiography; economic reforms.


Sokolov- 1999. Sokolov A.K. Social history of Russia of modern times: problems of methodology and source study [Social’naya istoriya Rossii novejshego vremeni: problemy metodologii i istochnikovedeniya] // Social history. Yearbook. 1998/99. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 1999; Getman E.S. On housing rights and duties. M., 1992; Lebedeva LF Fundamentals and priorities of social protection // USA: Economics. Policy. Ideology. 1995. № 10; Social sphere of Russia: Sat. Art. M., 1996; Economics and Society: Sat. scientific works. Perm, 1998; and etc.

See: Social Renewal Guidelines: Society and Man. Ed. T.I. Zaslavskaya. M., 1990; Zubkova E.Yu. Society and Reform. M., 1993; Popova M.B. Social differentiation and poverty of the population. Petrozavodsk, 1998; Sokolov A.K. Social history of Russia XX century. Man in the historical dimension. Issue. 1. M., 2000; and etc.

Ignatovskij- 1998. Ignatovsky P.A. Economy, people and the state [Ehkonomika, chelovek i gosudarstvo]. M .: Rus, 1998; State regulation of market economy. Moscow: RAGS, 1998; Vissarionov A. Peculiarities of state regulation of transitional economy // Problems of theory and practice of management. 1996. № 6; Sokolinsky V.M. State and economy. M., 1996; Reforming Russia: Myths and Reality. M., 1994; Regional Development Strategy: Theory and Practice. Perm, 1998.

See, for example: Zagladin N.V., Muntyan M.A. A time of trouble. Transition period and modernization // Problems of Russia’s Reform and the Modern World. M., 1993; Perestroika and problems of the theory of modern socialism. M., 1998; Barsenkov A.S. Reform of M.S. Gorbachev and the destiny of the union state // Russian statehood and society. XX century. M., 1999; and etc.

Sogrin – 1994. Sogrin V.V. Political history of Russia: 1985-1994. From Gorbachev to Yeltsin [Politicheskaya istoriya Rossii: 1985-1994. Ot Gorbachyova do El’cina]. M., 1994.

See: Economics of the Transition Period. Essays on the economic policy of post-communist Russia. M., 1998; Kudrov V.M. Soviet economy in retrospect. Moscow: Nauka, 2003.

Gajdar- 1997. Gaydar E.T. Compositions [Sochineniya]: In 2 volumes. M .: Eurasia, 1997.

Belous, Kolobov- 1999. Belous VI, Kolobov OA Soviet ideology as one of the factors of the collapse of the USSR [Sovetskaya ideologiya kak odin iz faktorov raspada SSSR]// Russia in the Twentieth Century: Problems of National Relations. M., 1999; Kagarlitsky B. The split monolith. Russia is on the verge of new battles. M., 1992; Naumov V.I. The deliberate disintegration of the USSR: the universal tragedy. M .: Comkniga, 2006.

Nujkin- 1999. Nuykin AA Requiem for Perestroika [Rekviem po perestrojke]// Time and We. 1999. № 1; Tsipko A.S. Vertigo from perestroika. Literaturnaya gazeta. 2005. № 1. 19-25 January; Sheinis V.L. The rise and fall of parliament. The turning point in Russian politics (1985-1993). T.1. Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center; INDEM Foundation, 2005; Kazmin V.N. Workers’ movement of Kuzbass in the period of “perestroika” (1989-1991) // Siberia: XX century: Interuniversity. Sat. sci. works. Kemerovo, 1999. Issue 2; Shubin LV Paradoxes of perestroika. Missed chance of the USSR. M., 2005.

See, for example: Kanyukov, Sergey Konstantinovich. Genesis of ownership in the context of the Russian legal tradition: Dis. … Dr. jurid. Sciences [12.00.01 – Theory and history of law and state; history of legal doctrines]. St. Petersburg, 2002. 398 p .; Smirnov, Ivan Alexandrovich. Economic institute of property rights in the system of labor relations: Dis …. kand. … cand. economical sciences [08.00.01 – Economic theory]. Kostroma, 2006. 141 pp. Byzov L.G. Sociocultural transformation of Russian society and the formation of a neoconservative identity // The World of Russia. 2002. № 10; Inozemtsev VL Modern post-industrial society. M., 2000; and etc.

Gajdar- 2006. Gaydar E.T. The death of the empire Gibel’ imperii. [Uroki dlya sovremennoj Rossii]. Lessons for modern Russia. Moscow: The Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2006.

Gajdar- 2017. Gaydar E.T. Order no. [Ukaz.soch]. – [See: – 14.09.2017].

Breakthrough to freedom: about perestroika twenty years later. / International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (Gorbachev Foundation); Comp. V.B. Kuvaldin. Moscow: Alpina Business Books, 2005; The tragedy of a great power: the national question and the disintegration of the Soviet Union: A collection of documents and materials of an international scientific conference (Moscow, September 2004). Ed. Sevostyanova G.A. M .: Socio-political thought, 2005.

Pihoya- 2005. Pikhoya R.G. Why the Soviet Union has collapsed [Pochemu raspalsya Sovetskij Soyuz] // The tragedy of a great power: the national question and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. M .: Socio-political thought, 2005. S. 404-422; Stankevich Z.A. Ratio of national and political factors in the process of collapse of the USSR / / Ibid. Pp. 423-442; Cheshko S.V. The role of ethno-nationalism in the collapse of the USSR / / Ibid. C.443-468; Cheshko S.V. The collapse of the Soviet Union: ethnopolitical analysis. 2 nd ed. M., 2000; Cheshko S.V. Disintegration of the USSR: ethnopolitical analysis. 2 nd ed. Moscow: IEA RAS, 2000; Galkin A.S. The place of perestroika in the history of Russia / / Breakthrough to freedom: about perestroika twenty years later. Moscow: Alpina Business Books, 2005. P. 66-87.

Cheshko- 2017. Chechko S.V. The role of ethno-nationalism in the collapse of the USSR. – [See: – September 14, 2017].

Galkin – 2017. Galkin A.A. Order no. P. 85.

Kara-Murza – 2005. Kara-Murza, S.G. Soviet civilization. From the Great Victory to the present day [Sovetskaya civilizaciya. Ot Velikoj Pobedy do nashih dnej.]. M .: Eksmo, Algorithm, 2005.

Kara-Murza – 2017. Kara-Murza, S.G. Order no. – [See: – September 14, 2017].

Hamant-2007. Hamant H. Breakup of the USSR and problems of succession of States [Démembrement de L’URSS et problèmes de succession d’Etats. Bruxelles], 2007. P. IX-XVIII.

Kremnev- 2010. Kremnev, P. P. International legal problems associated with the disintegration of the USSR [Mezhdunarodno-pravovye problemy, svyazannye s raspadom SSSR]: Avtoref. dis. … d-raiurid. Sciences [12.00.10 – International law. European law]. Moscow, 2010. P.3.

Kremnev- 2010. Kremnev P.P. International legal problems associated with the disintegration of the USSR[Mezhdunarodno-pravovye problemy, svyazannye s raspadom SSSR]: Avtoref. dis. … Dr. jurid. Sciences [12.00.10 – International Law. European Law]. Moscow, 2010. S. 5-6.

See, for example: – February 18, 2016; – February 18, 2016; and etc.



Yuliya A. Tymchuk

Master, Department of Civil and International Private Law at Volgograd State University, Base Department of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Volgograd (E-mail:

Bill on introduction of the mandatory notarization of the real estate transactions: comments and suggestions


Subject / Topic

The question of stability of civil turnover of immovable property and the protection of the personal non-property and property rights of citizens is still of a particular importance for society and state. The solvation of this issue can be effected by means of stricter legislative requirements to processing and form of certain legal procedures. The obligatory notarization is one of such requirements. The article is devoted to the analysis of the draft of federal law No. 193850-7 of June 06, 2017. «On modification of article 8.1 of part one of the Civil code of the Russian Federation», as well as to the study of the prospects of introduction of mandatory notarization of real estate transactions within the framework of this legislative initiative.

Goals / Objectives

To carry out the analysis of basic provisions of the bill No. 193850-7 of June 06, 2017 «On modification of article 8.1 of part one of the Civil code of the Russian Federation», to reveal its advantages and disadvantages, to estimate the relevance of the remarks to the bill stated in the official response of the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as to formulate recommendations for changes in legislation, the implementation of which will secure the requirement for mandatory notarization of real estate transactions.


The basic methodological tools of the article consist of the methods of scientific knowledge, analysis, and comparative-legal method.

Conclusions and Relevance

On the basis of the analysis of the draft federal law No 193850-7 from 6.6.2017. «On modification of article 8.1 of part one of the Civil code of the Russian Federation» the critical remarks and suggestions for its improvement are formulated.


bill, civil turnover, real estate transactions, mandatory notarization, notarial tariff, payment for services of legal and technical character, notarial responsibility.


Notaries in civil circulation: in Russia and abroad: monography [Notariat v grajdanskom oborote: v Rossii i za rubejom: monografiya]/ Avt. koll.: Goncharova N.V., Inshakova A.O., Kazachenok O.P., Ostapenko I.A., Timchuk Yu.A. / edited by A.O. Inshakovoi. – M.: Yurlitinform,  2017. – 176 p. [in Russian].

Draft federal law № 193850-7 from 6.6.2017 «On modification of article 8.1 of part one of the Civil code of the Russian Federation» // State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia. URL: (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.).

The draft federal law № 47538-6 «On modification of the first, the second, the third and the fourth parts of the Civil code of the Russian Federation and also legal acts of the Russian Federation» // State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia. URL: (date of reference: 23.03.2017 г.).

The draft federal law № 552089-6 «On modification of Art. 8.1 of part one of the Civil code of the Russian Federation» (the edition brought in the State Duma of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the text as of 6/23/2014) // State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia. URL: (date of reference: 18.11.2015 г.).

Official response on the draft federal law «On Modification of Article of 81 Part One of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation» from 9.25.2014 // State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia. URL: (date of reference:: 10.07.2017 г.).

The letter of FNC from 4.1.2016 № 1078/03-16-3 «About the direction of Methodical recommendations about determination of the margin of notary fee for rendering legal and technical services» // Legal-reference system «Consultant Plus» (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.).

Zaikov (2017) – Zaykov D.E. Rendering legal and technical notary services: problems of legal regulation [Okazanie notariusami uslug pravovogo i tehnicheskogo haraktera: problemi pravovogo regulirovaniya]// Advokat. 2017. № 3. [Lawyer, 2017. № 3] – Legal-reference system «Consultant Plus» (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.). [in Russian].

Goncharov, Scherbinin (2009) – Goncharov A.I, Scherbinin A.A. – Financial security of a notariate abroad [Finansovoe obespechenie notariata za rubejom ]// Finance of the enterprises [Finansi predpriyatii]. № 24 (360) – 2009. – P.7-15. [in Russian].

Cost of our services. Realtor services// Department of Real Estate. URL: (date of reference: 14.07.2017 г.).

Notaries are ready to participate in the system analysis of the situation with registration of the rights for the real estate// The Federal Chamber of Notaries. URL:  (date of reference: 11.07.2017 г.).

Appeal definition of September 16, 2015 on the case № 33-5819/2015]// Legal-reference system «Consultant Plus» (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.).

Inshakova, Timchuk (2016) –  Inshakova A.O., Tymchuk Y.A. Mandatory notarization of real estate transactions as a guarantee of its civil turnover stability [Obyazatelnoe notarialnoe udostoverenie sdelok s nedvijimostyu kak Garant stabilnosti ee grajdanskogo oborota] // Bulletin of the Volgograd state university. Series 5: Law [Vestnik VolGU. Seriya 5: Yurisprudenciya] 2016. – №2 (31). – P.125-133. [in Russian].

Appeal definition of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan from 1/26/2016 №. 33-1629/2016]// Legal-reference system «Consultant Plus» (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.).

Cassation determination of the Court of the Jewish Autonomous Region of 05.08.2011 in case No. 33-357 / 2011 // Legal-reference system «Consultant Plus» (date of reference: 10.07.2017 г.).



Stanislav V.Nikolyukin

Associate Professor, Civil law Department of the Russian state University of justice, Candidate of legal sciences, Moscow (

To the question of legal status of the regional operator as the subject of housing legal relations


Subject/Topic The research is devoted to the study of norms of the legal status of regional operator, the formation of capital repairs funds by the regional operator and the features of its activities contained in the housing legislation of the Russian Federation and the legislation of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as the analysis of law enforcement practice.

Goals/Objectives The purpose of the study is to develop the author’s definition of a regional operator, the rationale for its features, and the systematization of elements of the legal status of a regional operator.

Methodology The methodological basis of the research was formed by general scientific methods of cognition including the principle of objectivity, consistency, induction, deduction, etc. Along with general scientific methods of cognition, the following individual methods were applied: descriptive, linguistic, comparative-legal.

Conclusion and Relevance The legal status of regional operator has a special character, since its activities are aimed at the formation and maintenance of the regional capital repair system of common property in apartment buildings, the owners of the premises of which accumulate capital repair funds on the fund’s account (accounts), which is an important factor in socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and the implementation of various state programs that ensure the well-being of citizens.

Keywords: the regional operator; overhaul; the Fund; the subject of the Russian Federation; vicarious liability; head of the regional operator; the property of the regional operator; functions of the regional operator capital repair Fund; the duties of the regional operator; the responsibility of the regional operator.


Nikolyukin – 2014. Nikolyukin S.V. Housing needs of citizens as subjects of housing legal relations in the conditions of modern management (theory and practice issues): monography [Zhilishchnye potrebnosti grazhdan kak sub”ektov zhilishchnyh pravootnoshenij v usloviyah sovremennogo hozyajstvovaniya (voprosy teorii i praktiki): monografiya]. Moscow: Yurlitinform, 2014. Р. 3-4.

Nikolyukin – 2015. Nikolyukin S.V. Specificity of housing legal relations in modern Russian society [Specifika zhilishchnyh pravootnoshenij v sovremennom rossijskom obshchestve] // Contemporary Lawyer. 2015. № 3 (12). P. 43-53.

Maslej – 2015. Maslay S.E. Legal regulation of financing and processing of capital repair of common property in apartment buildings [Pravovoe regulirovanie finansirovanija i provedenija kapital’nogo remonta obshhego imushhestva mnogokvartirnyh domov] // Bulletin of Omsk University. The series «Law». 2015. № 4 (45). P. 77-86.

Gazizov – 2014. Gazizov R.M. State policy on the processing of capital repairs of apartment buildings // Problems of Accounting and Finance. 2014. № 1 (13). P. 49-51.



Natalia F. Popova

Doctor of Sciences (Law), professor of the Department of Legal regulation of economic activities at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Modern strategy for the development of public administration


Subject /Topic The article studies public relations in the sphere of public administration.

Goals / Оbjectives The aim of the study is to analyze theory and practice of the subject, to set out goals and objectives of the modern strategy of public administration development.

Methodology General scientific and special scientific methods of cognition of phenomena and processes; such methods of scientific research, as formal-logical, comparative law and others.

Conclusions and Relevance Currently one can observe low efficiency and quality of public administration. The large-scale social and economic development in Russia is impossible without solving this problem. Thus, it is absolutely necessary to work out the strategy for the development of public administration, which should clearly define the tasks to be solved in the field of public administration. The work resulted in the formulation of the objectives aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of public administration. The author has defined them as a clear allocation of functions between the executive authorities; improvement of their transparency and ensuring citizens ‘ access to information on their activities; improvement of the quality of public administration; simplification of legislation; the fight against corruption; introduction of the latest achievements of science and technology; improvement of administrative procedures; optimization of the number and qualification of civil servants; improvement of state control and supervision, etc. The author has performed more detailed study of the question of improvement of administrative procedures as a factor of enhancement of efficiency and quality of public administration.

Keywords: strategy, for public administration, effectiveness and quality of public administration, administrative procedures, executive authorities, the provision of public services, administrative regulations.


Grant -2016. Grant R.M. Modern strategic analysis [Sovremennyj strategicheskij analiz]. – 7th Edition. – Saint Petersburg: Piter [7-e izdanie. — Sankt-Peterburg: Piter]. – 2016. – P. 25.

Popova – 2016. Popova N.F. Administrative law: tutorial and workshop for applied undergraduate / N. F. Popova [Administrativnoe pravo: uchebnik i praktikum dlya prikladnogo bakalavriata / N.F. Popova]- 2-nd ed., exec. And extras. – М.: publishing URAYT [2-e izd., isp. I dop. – M.: Izda-tel’stvo YUrajt] – 2016. –  P. 21.

Atamanchuk – 2004. Atamanchuk G.V. Theory of public administration [Teoriya gosudarstvennogo upravleniya] – Publisher: Omega-l [Izdatel’stvo: Omega-L]. – 2004. – P. 34.

Starilov – 2010. Starilov Y.N. An administrative reform: to the perspective of “new public administration” and “effective state” [Administrativnaya reforma: k perspektive “novogo gosudarstvennogo upravleniya” i “ehffektivnogo gosudarstva”] // From the publications of recent years: memories, ideas, opinions, doubts [Iz publikacij poslednih let: vospominaniya, idei, mneniya, somneniya]. Voronezh [Voronezh]. –  2010. – P. 445.

Lapina – 2006. Lapina M.A. Implementation of executive power in the Russian Federation [Realizaciya ispolnitel’noj vlasti v Rossijskoj Federacii]. – M. [M.]. – 2006. – P. 23.

Tihomirov – 2002. Tihomirov Y.A. Administrative procedures and law [Administrativnye procedury i pravo] // Journal of Russian law [ZHurnal rossijskogo prava]. – 2002. -N. 4. – P. 12.

Popova – 2013. Popova N.F. The question of administrative procedures in the field of finance, taxes and fees [K voprosu ob administrativnyh procedurah v oblasti finansov, nalogov i sborov] // Modern lawyer [Sovremennyj yurist]. – 2013. – N. 2. – P. 38-51.

Agafonov – 2008. Agafonov S.I.  Administrative procedures and their implementation in the activities of the internal affairs agencies of the Russian Federation [Administrativnye procedury i ih realizaciya v deyatel’nosti organov vnutrennih del Rossijskoj Federacii] : Dees. … Cand. legal. Sciences [Avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk]. – M. [M.]. – 2008. – P. 12.

Lazarev -2005. Lazarev I.M. Administrative procedures in the field of relationship of citizens and their organizations with the executive authorities of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION [Administrativnye procedury v sfere vzaimootnoshe-nij grazhdan i ih organizacij s organami ispolnitel’noj vlasti v RF] : DIS. … Cand. legal. Sciences [Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk]. – M. [M.]. –  2005. – P. 53.

Hazanov – 2003. Hazanov S.D. Administrative procedures: definition and systematization [Administrativnye procedury: opredelenie i siste-matizaciya] // Russian law journal [Rossijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal]. – 2003. – N. 1. – P. 60.

Barcic – 2008. Barcic I.N. Administrative procedures: prospects for legal regulation and “sense of measure” [Administrativnye procedury: perspektivy pravovoj reglamentacii i «chuvstvo mery»] // Questions of State and municipal management [Voprosy gosudarstvennogo i munici-pal’nogo upravleniya]. – 2008. –  N .1. – P. 124.



Irina V. Golovinskaya

Doctor of Law, VJI FSIN (Federal Service of punishment implementation), Russia; Professor of the Department of Criminal and legal disciplines, Law Institute of Vladimir state University named after Alexander G. and Nicholay G. Stoletov, Vladimir (E-mail:

To the question of the powers of investigator and prosecutor at the conclusion of pretrial agreement on cooperation


Subject/Topic The subject of the scientific research of this article is the procedure for the conclusion of a pretrial cooperation agreement, the powers of the investigator and prosecutor in this area, as well as the complex of problems arising in the application of the legal rules governing this criminal procedure institute.

Goals/Objectives The aim of the study is the attempt to justify the judgement about the desirability of changes in the powers of the head of the investigative body and the prosecutor in the question of conclusion of a pretrial cooperation agreement.

Methodology The methodology consists of general theoretical and special methods of scientific research, including analysis and synthesis, logic, dialectic, systemic-structural, comparative legal, sociological and statistical methods.

Conclusion and Relevance The author proposes the procedure algorithm of consideration of the application of the suspect, the accused for the conclusion of pretrial cooperation agreement, the approval of this agreement by the head of the investigative body. The suggestion is made in respect of advisability of removing of the above-mentioned prosecutor’s powers to review and approve pre-trial agreement on cooperation.

Keywords: pretrial cooperation agreement, the prosecutor, the investigator, the court, the suspect, the accused.


Golovinskaya I.V., Golovinsky M.M. Pre-trial agreement on cooperation. Vladimir, 2011. [Golovinskaya I.V., M. M. Golovinskiy. Dosudebnoe soglashenie o sotrudnichestve: monografiya. Vladimir, 2011.] [in Russian]

Golovinsky M.M. Pre-trial cooperation agreement: legal regulation and practice. cand. of law. sciences. Vladimir, 2011. [Golovinskiy M.M. Dosudebnoe soglashenie o sotrudnichestve: normativno-pravovoe regulirovanie i praktika primeneniya: Diss. … kand. yurid. nauk. Vladimir, 2011.] [in Russian]

Statistics of the Judicial Department of the RF armed forces РФ //[Statisticheskie dannyie Sudebnogo departamenta pri VS RF//] [in Russian]



Artem S. Genkin

Doctor of economic sciences, Professor, President, of ANO “Centre of Protection of Bank Clients and Investors”, Moscow (E-mail:,

Aleksey A. Mikheyev

Doctor of economic sciences, Associate Professor, MGIMO University, Moscow (E-mail:

ICO - new economical and legal forms of securitization on the basis of the blockchain technology


Subject/Topic ICO as new economical and legal form of securitization.

Goals/Objectives To study ICO, areas of their application and practices of implementation into the existing legal system.

Methodology Modelling, formalization, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction. The ICO phenomenon is considered in this article. Literally meaning “primary offer of coins”, it is a form of attraction of investments into new technological projects and startups in the form of issue and sale to investors of new cryptocurrencies with use of the distributed register (blockchain) technology. Unlike the IPO, with application of a blockchain for ICO neither intermediaries, nor regulatory control are necessary. Such technology is convenient and favorable to startup founders, at the same time, it is trusted also by venture investors. However, for today ICO has no full legal definiteness. Legal relationship of the parties of this process are regulated by nobody: the contribution from the investor is recorded only in the blockchain. Classification of the most popular token types at ICO is given in the article. The main models of token issue are considered. The main advantages of carrying out ICO to businessmen and project founders are distinguished. A number of the most interesting projects and services in ICO sphere is considered (including, among them, those initiated by the financial and bank organizations). The review of the main organizational and legal models applied by domestic ICO projects for the last year is carried out.

Conclusions and Relevance. The ICO as a tool with use of the distributed ledger technology has prospects and is interesting both to investors, and project founders. The market conducts search of the optimum organizational and legal ICO models, however implementation of this institute in legal system is late so far.

Keywords: ICO, blockchain, Bitcoin, cryptocurrency, DAO.


See: Hayek F. A. Private money. (Chastnye dengi). Translation from English by B. Verpakhovsky. M, 1996. Page 25.

CryptoForum Russia 2016: how the development of blockchain industry accelerates (CryptoForum Russia 2016: kak uskoryaetsya razvitie blockchain-indusrii) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Gershuni S. How and why the blockchain will turn the $200-billion venture capital industry (Kak I pochemu blockchain perevernet $200-milliardnuyu industriyu) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Brener, D. On Tokens and Crowdsales [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017). Russian translation: ICO instead of the IPO: classification of digital tokens (ICO vmesto IPO: klassifikatciya tcifrovyh tokenov) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

BNP Paribas Announces Successful Completion Of Blockchain Bizhackathon [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Parker, L. BNP Paribas and SmartAngels blockchain pilot targets Europe’s growing crowdfunding sector [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Brockbank, A. CASE STUDY – Estonian block chains transform paying, trading and signing // In: Distributed Ledger Technology: beyond block chain. A report by the UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser. – P. 80. [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

The great chain of being sure about things // Economist. 2015. Oct. 31 [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Colored Coins add-on for Copay Released [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Campbell R. Counterparty Brings Ethereum Smart Contracts to the Bitcoin Blockchain [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

ZrCoin carries out the Russia’s first ICO of the industrial project (ZrCoin provodit pervoe v Russia ICO promyshlennogo proekta) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Butrin D. Bitcoin for the poor (Bitcoin dlya bednyh)  // Kommersant. 2017. April 05.

Stetsenko S. The blockchain project “Kolionovo’s Ecosystem” started ICO (Blockchain proekt “Ecosistema Kolionovo” zapustil ICO) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

The Russian farmer released the cryptocurrency (Rossijskij fermer vypustil svoyu kriptovalyutu) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).

Kuznetsova N. Russians started a wave of ICO (Russkije zapustili volnu ICO) [Электронный ресурс]. /URL: // (дата обращения: 20.07.2017).


Giulia Ceccarani

Ph. D Student of Consumer Law At the University of Perugia, Italia


Mortgage credit directive: implementation and effectiveness of the consumer’s creditworthiness assessment


Subject/Topic This article Directive 2014/17/EU on credit agreements for consumers relating to residential immovable property which has the purpose of creating a more transparent and competitive European mortgage credit market, with a high level of consumer protection. The paper focuses on the main provisions of mortgage credit Directive and particularly on the lenders’ duty to asses the creditworthiness of the consumer, which has the purpose of evaluating the ability of the consumer to repay the credit. The aforementioned assessment take into consideration all relevant factors that could influence such consumer’s capacity to meet his obligations under the credit agreement like future payments or payments increases due to negative amortisation or deferred payments of principal or interest, as well as regular expenditure, debts, income, savings and assets; its specific aim is to protect the consumers from irresponsible behavior by market participants and the relating so called predatory lending practices, which caused a lack of confidence among all parties, in particular consumers, after outbreak of the 2007-2008 financial crisis.

Goals/Objectives The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the creditworthiness assessment provided by the Directive, with a short background on its implementation in the Italian legal system, and to highlight its weaknesses and possible solutions.

Keywords: Mortgage Credit Directive; consumers creditworthiness assessment; effectiveness and weaknesses.



Yurii V. Stepanenko

Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Administrative Law and Process, University of O.E. Kutafina (MSWU) Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation; Chief research officer of the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia; Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic activity at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Review for the dissertation of Andrey Olegovich Gubenkov «Administrative and legal regulations of control and licensing activity of examination departments of the State traffic Inspectorate»


The article gives characteristic of the results of the thesis research conducted by Andrei Olegovich Gubenkov, devoted to the administrative and legal regulation of the control and licensing activities of the examination departments of the State Traffic Inspectorate. The relevance of the topic is confirmed, the scientific novelty, validity and reliability of the terms, conclusions, proposals and recommendations formulated by the competitor are shown. Attention is drawn to the certain shortcomings and controversial points of scientific research, which may lead to further scientific discussion. The final evaluation of the results of the dissertation research is given.

Keywords: control and licensing activity of examination departments of the State traffic police, road safety, deprivation of driving license, violation of traffic rules.


Smolyakov A.I. Administrative and legal coercion and encouragement in the system of state legal methods for ensuring road safety: Diss … Cand. jurid. sciences. – Moscow: Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2015.

Antonov S.N. Federal state supervision in the field of road safety: problems of legal regulation // Administrative law and process. 2017. № 1. P. 25 – 30.

Lisitskaya A.V. Organizational and legal aspects of ensuring road safety // Transport Law. 2017. № 1. P. 29 – 32.