The Modern Lawyer №1(18)




Natalia F. Popova

Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the public administration


Rationale. The subject of this study are the basic theoretical-methodological and practical approaches to understanding of the essence of governance, its criteria, the factors associated with effectiveness.

Оbjectives. The main goals of the following article is to analyze the theory and practice of the subject matter as well as to formulate proposals to improve the efficiency of public administration.

Methodology. Within the conducted research such research methods as formal logic, comparative legal and formal legal methods etc. have been employed.

Conclusions and Relevance. Evaluation of effectiveness of governance should be based on two aspects: the achievement of strategic indicators of socio-economic development (goal setting) and quality management functions (functional). It is stated that in the Russian Federation an attempt  to assess the effectiveness of the activities of executive bodies of governmental power of RF subjects on the basis of 15 different key performance indicators have been made. The performance criteria for individual sides of the activities of the executive bodies, for example, to create an enabling environment for doing business have been studied. Author comes to the following conclusions: the efficiency of the public administration corresponds to the level of economic development of the state security and defense capability, stability and continuity in civil society movements;  criteria of efficiency of the system depend on subjective values expressed in the ideology of a particular socio-political system, the strategic objectives of the ruling elite are fixed in concepts, strategies, policies and management systems standards, reflecting the national public interest; effectiveness evaluation should be based on two aspects: the achievement of strategic indicators of socio-economic development (goal setting); and quality management functions (functional).  The result was the formulation of proposals for the improvement of the system of indicators of the effectiveness of public administration.

Keywords: governance, efficiency criteria, the executive authorities, the purpose of the control function.

JEL Classification: K 23



  1. Derbetova 2012 – Derbetova T.N. Evaluating the effectiveness of public administration: from common approaches to specific subject [Ocenka jeffektivnosti gosudarstvennogo upravlenija: ot obshhih podhodov k konkretno-predmetnym ] // Online magazine «Science of science» [Internet zhurnal «Naukovedenie»]. 2012. № 1 [in Russian].
  2.  Khalikov 2008 – Khalikov M.I. System of State and municipal management: a training manual [Sistema gosudarstvennogo i municipal’nogo upravlenija: uchebnoe posobie.]. M.: Flint [M.: Flinta], 2008. -448 p. [in Russian].
  3.  Atamanchuk 2004 – Atamanchuk G.V. Theory of public administration [Teorija gosudarstvennogo upravlenija]. Publisher: Omega-l [Izdatel’stvo: Omega-L], 2004 [in Russian].
  4. Ignatov 2007 – Ignatov B. Increasing the efficiency of State power and administration is a vital concern to preserve Russian statehood [Povyshenie jeffektivnosti gosudarstvennoj vlasti i upravlenija — zhiznenno vazhnaja problema sohranenija rossijskoj gosudarstvennost’ju.]. – М: Business [ M.: Delo], 2007 [in Russian].
  5. Barcic 2013 – Barcic I.N. Constitutional right to good (effective) management: criteria, indicators, evaluation [Konstitucionnoe pravo na horoshee (jeffektivnoe) upravlenie: kriterii, pokazateli, ocenki ] // Constitutional and municipal law [Konstitucionnoe i municipal’noe pravo]. 2013. № 11. P. 45 [in Russian].
  6. Talapina 2015- Talapina E.V. Governance in the information society (legal aspect): monograph [Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie v informacionnom obshhestve (pravovoj aspekt): monografija]. – M.: Jurisprudence [M.: Jurisprudencija]. 2015. P. 92. [in Russian].
  7. Message from the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly on 21.12.2012 [Poslanie Prezidenta RF Federal’nomu Sobraniju ot 12.12.2012.] [in Russian].
  8. Aaron 1993 – Aaron R. Democracy and totalitarianism [Demokratija i totalitarizm]. M.: Text [ M.: Tekst].- 1993. P. 166-167 [in Russian].
  9. Popova 2011 – Popova N.F. On modernization of the system and structure of executive bodies: Muromcevskie reading: the modernization of the legal system of Russia: problems of theory and practice. Materials From International Scientific Conference [O modernizacii sistemy i struktury organov ispolnitel’noj vlasti : Muromcevskie chtenija: Modernizacija pravovoj sistemy Rossii: problemy teorii i praktiki. Materialy X1 Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii.]. Moscow, April 14, 2011 / under. Ed. N.I. Arkhipova, S.V. Timofeeva [Moskva, 14 aprelja 2011 g. / Pod. red. N.I. Arhipovoj, S.V. Timofeeva. – M.: RGGU]. – Moscow: RSUH PUBL., 2011. P. 34-39 [in Russian].
  10. Yeremina 2016 – Yeremina O.Y. Legal issues on evaluation of public authorities [O pravovyh problemah ocenivanija organov gosudarstvennoj vlasti] // Journal of Russian law [Zhurnal rossijskogo prava]. 2016. № 11. P. 86-94 [in Russian].
  11. Makarova 2009 – Makarova T.B. Performance assessment the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation as a form of presidential control [Ocenka jeffektivnosti dejatel’nosti organov ispolnitel’noj vlasti sub#ektov Rossijskoj Federacii kak forma prezidentskogo kontrolja] // State power and local self-government [Gosudarstvennaja vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie]. 2009. № 4. P. 17 [in Russian].
  12. Hludeneva 2016 – Hludeneva N.I. Regulatory function of environmental law: problems of realization [Reguljativnaja funkcija jekologicheskogo prava: problemy realizacii] // Journal of Russian law [Zhurnal rossijskogo prava]. 2016. № 12. P. 142-151 [in Russian].
  13. Grib V.V. Executive bodies of State power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation as objects of public control [Ispolnitel’nye organy gosudarstvennoj vlasti sub#ektov Rossijskoj Federacii kak ob#ekty obshhestvennogo kontrolja] // State power and local self-government [Gosudarstvennaja vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie]. 2016. № 7. P. 3-8 [in Russian].



Yuri V. Stepanenko

Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Administrative Law and Process, O. E. Kutafin Moscow State Academy of Law (MSAL), honored lawyer of the Russian Federation; chief research worker of VNII MVD of Russia; Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Revisiting the improvement of legal regulation of activity of state scientific centers


Rationale The public relations in sphere of legal regulation of activities of state scientific centres of the Russian Federation have become the subject of the present paper.

Goals/objectives The main goal of the conducted study is to identify the gaps and contradictions in the Federal law of 23 August 1996 № 127-FZ «On science and state scientific-technical policy» and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation concerning the concept, administrative and legal status and organization of state scientific centers as well as to develop specific proposals for amendments and additions to the legislation on science and state scientific and technical policy of the Russian Federation.

Methodology Within the conducted research such scientific methods as general dialectic method of scientific cognition, general scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, description, comparison, analogy; such special research methods as comparative legal method and formal legal method.

Conclusions Research has shown the imperfection of some statutory legislative regulations on state scientific centres as well as the requirements that must be met for a scientific organization claiming the status of state scientific center of Russian Federation. The author substantiates the necessity of legislative consolidation of appropriate conception, elaboration of scientifically formalized objective criteria on the basis of which a scientific organization may be recognized by the state scientific center of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that the draft Federal law «On amendments to the Federal law «On science and state scientific and technical policy» in terms of improving the activities of state scientific centres in the Russian Federation» does not fully solve the problem of optimization of administrative legal status of state scientific centres. As a conclusion, particular legislative proposals have been made.

Keywords: public research centers, state scientific center, scientific organization, high qualification, scientific (research) activities, scientific and technical activities.


JEL Classification: K23



  1. Untura- 2011. Untura G. A. Public research centres in the innovation system of the Russian Federation [Gosudarstvennye nauchnye centry v innovacionnoj sisteme Rossijskoj Federacii]// Region: Economics and sociology. – 2011. – №. 1. – P. 118-139.
  2. Maltseva-2016. Maltseva A. A. State scientific centers of the Russian Federation: current status and prospects [Gosudarstvennye nauchnye centry Rossijskoj Federacii: sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy]// Vestnik Drycerovsky. – 2016. – № 1(9). – P. 15-28.





Artem S. Djukov

a postgraduate student of the Department of Civil Law, International Law Institute, judge assisstant of the Arbitration Court of Moscow, 3 rd class Counselor of Justice of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Protection of ownership and interests of an owner of the immovable thing


Rationale The article presents the question of qualification of the right of ownership of property in arbitration practice in the Moscow region. The incidents of legal interpretation  are investigated  in the matter of registration of property rights arose before the Law on registration entered  into force. The relations of belonging of objects of property trade are the subject of the research. The object of the study is to analyze the approach of the enforcers in determining the time of emergence and the concept of property rights.

Goals/objectives The author has focused on the review and analysis of judicial arbitration practice on the object of study of this article. During the study the existing need for generalization and the development of a unified position in the issue of characterization of the examined relations has been identified, which was the main goal of the research.

Methodology The study was carried out on the basis of an analysis of current judicial practice, its generalization, the establishment of uniformity of assessment of the investigated issue.

Conclusion As the result of the conducted research a common approach in the qualification of relations of ownership of items has been found and the moment of occurrence or change of the right of ownership in modern legal practice has been determined. Analyzing the judgment of the courts, establishing the unity of the grounds of the motives that prompted the courts to adopt a particular decision, the author compares the positions that determine the existence of an established conflict in the verdicts of the law-enforcers as well.

Key words: property law, ownership, property, ownership, possession, holding, immovable property, real estate, state registration, registration of the earlier arisen rights of ownership, registration of the transfer of ownership.

JEL Classification: K11



  1. Mattei,  Sukhanov- 1999.  Mattei U., Sukhanov E. A. General provisions ownership rights [Osnovnyie polozheniya prava sobstvennosti]. M.: Lawyer, 1999. P.151-153.



Stanislav V. Nikolyukin

assistant professor of The Department of Economic Regulation of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, assistant professor Moscow (

The mechanism of legal regulation land easement: theory and enforcement


Rationale. The article is devoted to the mechanism of legal regulation of land servitude as one of the types of limited real rights. – Methods of regulation and mandatory rules of conduct and regulations of individual character, provided security and protection by the state, and, where appropriate, of state coercion. Additionally, the work considers the legal category, reflecting the diverse, the regulation of limited real rights, especially legal facts which are the basis for the emergence of land and easement other civil law relationships and the nature of the acts of application and regulations the rights and obligations of the subjects. The work considers the materials of judicial practice.

Оbjective. The purpose of the study is that based on scientific analysis of normative legal acts and their application to examine the contents, forms and methods of legal regulation of legal relations related to land easements.

Methodology. The methodological basis of research are: the dialectical method of cognition, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis. Used traditional legal Sciences of private-scientific methods, namely, method, system, structural, comparative analysis, and formal-legal and empirical methods.

Conclusions and Relevance. Features of the mechanism of legal regulation of land easement as a legal category are that it unites the most essential elements of the legal regulation of the behavior of the subjects of the land easement as a limited property right, linking the norms of civil and land law, legal relations and acts of implementation of servitude rights. The mechanism of legal regulation of the land servitude is a system of logically interrelated legal means, forming a single, internally coordinated set of elements whose purpose is to create a certain algorithm for regulating the land easement.

Keywords: legal regulation; civil legislation; land legislation; proprietary rights; limited proprietary rights; easement; types of easement; land easement; real estate; the property.

JEL classification: K10, К11



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  3. Andreev (2010) – Andreev Y. N. About servitudes [O servitutah] // Economy and law. 2004. №. 5. P. 85-97.
  4. Roman private law. Under the editorship of I.B. Novitsky and I. S. Peretersky. [Rimskoe chastnoe pravo. Pod red. I.B. Novickogo i I.S. Pereterskogo]. M.: New Lawyer, 1997. P. 195-201.
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Alexey V. Sereda

Deputy Director, Center for International Cooperation, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Е-mail:

The analysis of the foreign experience of the cryptocurrencies’ legal regulation


Rationale This article deals with the foreign legislative approaches to virtual currencies regulation, which should be analyzed to form a conclusive output on the legal nature of cryptocurrency in Russian legislation.

Objective The main goal of this study is to summarize the foreighn experience of legal regulation of the cryptocurrency and to justify the necessity of such a regulation mechanisms formulation in Russian legislation.

Methodology Within the study conducted such general research methods as analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction and such private research methods as comparative law method and the formal-legal method have been employed.

Conclusions and Relevance The cryptocurrency is not regarded as a legal tender according to the absolute majority of national legislation worldwide, however it could be used within the cashless transactions providing the compliance of anti-money laundering regulations. At the same time, current Russian legislation does not contain any regulations allowing or prohibiting the virtual currencies usage within the payment relations. This legal gap causes the exception of a sizable group of legal relations concerning the creation, acquisition and usage of cryptocurrencies from the legal regulation which therefore spawns legal uncertainties and perplexes the process of law-enforcement, compelling the judicial bodies to either create new legal norms or to settle the disputes on the basis of current general legal regulations. In the opinion of the author it is necessary to capture the notion of “cryptocurrency” in Russian legislation and to formulate the complicated mechanism of its’ legal regulation.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, virtual currencies, currency circulation, foreign experience.




InnaV. Zaikina

candidate of legal sciences, associate professor, associate professor of Department of the «Legal providing in the field of science and technologies» of «Moscow Polytechnic University», dean of faculty the «Modern right» of «Institute of world civilizations», Moscow (e-mail:

GrigoryA. Kozlitin

candidate of legal sciences, associate professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines of «Institute of world civilizations», Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of «Russian Customs Academy», Moscow, (e-mail:

Marianna O. Rumyantseva

candidate of legal sciences Associate Professor of the Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines of «Institute of world civilizations», Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law of «Russian Customs Academy», Moscow, (e-mail:,

Required procedural complicity in civil proceedings: problems of legislativeregulation


The article analyzes some problems involving binding partners in civil proceedings; focuses on the fact that as a result of a lack of legislative regulation of the institute of obligatory procedural complicity court, often not in a position to make a fair decision, because it cannot be addressed without involving the necessary co-plaintiff, which for some reason is not willing or able to join the process; on the basis of study of experience of legal practice in the article suggests some ways of filling in legislative gaps.

Keywords: procedural complicity; the necessary procedural complicity; obligatory procedural complicity; the procedure for involving accomplices in the process, the active role of the court.



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Sergey N. Khorunzhiy

PhD in Juridical sciences, Voronezh State University, Department of Civil law and Civil Process, Faculty of Law; Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), branch in the city of Voronezh, Voronezh (E-mail:

Constitutional balance as an independent value


Rationale This article examines the constitutional aspects of the balance of rights and legitimate interests in terms of their content industry, the implementation of the law in force, as well as practical activities of public authorities. The balance and the constitutional ideology has been also analyzed.

Objective The main goal of the present research was to prove the possibility of qualification of  independent balance as a separate constitutionally-protected value. This goal was reached through the solution of such research problems as exploration of the value of interdisciplinary balance of interests; conduction of the cross-sectoral comparison of private and public interests; justification of consensus, based on the Constitution of  Russia; determination of  the balance of values.

Methods Within the conducted research such research method as systematic approach has been employed in its’ legal-comparative approach with a glance to the legal position of the Constitutional Court of the Russain Federation as well as the methods of legal norms’ deconstruction on the social relations.

Conclusions and Relevance Interdisciplinary use of the balance in private and public relations, legal regulation of the balance of rights and legal interests, as well as the constitutional entrenchment of the fundamental principles of law, indicate the existence of a legal balance as an independent constitutionally-protected value.

Keywords: balance, constitutional values, private and public interests, the constitutional ideology, principles of law.

JEL classification: К1, К4



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Ekaterina V.Baliuk

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad (E-mail:

Comparative analysis of legal regulation of the contract for the international sale of goods in international legislation and in the Russian and German legislation


Rationale. The legal regulation of the contract for the international sale of goods regulated on international and national levels.

Objective. The main goal of the present research is to undertake a research of a high quality of the contract’s legal regulation for its further use by scientific and practical societies.

Methods. The author uses methods of analysis, synthesis and analogy of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the Civil Code of the Federal Republic of Germany

Conclusions and Relevance. The Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany, both being belonged to continental legal regime and being State parties to the Convention, have not only common legal provisions but also the own national identity concerning conclusion, termination of the aforementioned contract and application of the principle of the proper performance of contracts.

Key words: offer, acceptance, conditions, termination of a contract, material breach of a contract, fault.

JEL classification: К33


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  2. Resolution of the Plenum of Supreme Court of the Russian Federation N 8 dated 01.07.1996 (as amended 24.03.2016) «On some questions concerning application of the first part of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation» [Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF № 8 ot 01.07.1996 (red. ot 24.03.2016) «O nekotoryih voprosah, svyazannyih s primeneniem chasti pervoy Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii»] // SPS «ConsultantPlus», P.57 [SPS «KonsultantPlyus», p.57] [in Russian].
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  7. Scientific commentary to art.441, 450 Civil Code of the Russian Federation [Nauchno-prakticheskiy kommentariy k st.441, 450 GK RF]. URL: (date of access: 19.01.2017) [data obrascheniya: 19.01.2017] [in Russian].
  8. Petrenko 2010 – Petrenko A.V., Acceptance in civil law of the Russian Federation: critical analysis [Aktsept v grazhdanskom prave RF: kriticheskiy analiz] // First steps of students in science: theses inter-academic scientific conferences of students organized by the Russian State University of Immanuel Kant [Pervyie shagi studentov v nauke: tezisyi mezhvuzovskoy nauchnoy studencheskoy konferentsii yuridicheskogo fakulteta RGU im. I. Kanta] / scientific supervisor S.V.Dolgova – Kalinigrad: printed by the Russian State University of Immanuel Kant. 2010. – issue 9. P.22-24 [nauch. red. S.V. Dolgova. – Kaliningrad: Izd-vo RGU im. I. Kanta. 2010. – Vyip. 9. P.22-24] [in Russian].
  9. Petrischev 2007 – Petrischev V.S., Fundamental change of circumstances: legal application of art.451 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and experience of countries of common and continental legal systems [Suschestvennoe izmenenie obstoyatelstv: pravoprimenenie st.451 GK RF i opyit stran obschego i kontinentalnogo prava]. Pre-print WP 10/2007/06. М.: GU VSHE, 2007. P.8-9 [Pre-print WP 10/2007/06. М.: GU VSHE, 2007. P.8-9] [in Russian].
  10. Popov 2016 – Popov Yu.P., Safety of the commercial entity. Foundations of safety of professional relations of the commercial entity [Bezopasnost predpriyatiya. Osnovyi bezopasnosti delovyih otnosheniy predpriyatiya]. М.: NZ ENAS, 2016 [in Russian].
  11. Resolution of the FAS of North-West district dated 11 January 2007 № Ф04-8719/2006(29809-А75-16). The case № А75-2991/2006 [Postanovlenie FAS Severo-Zapadnogo okruga ot 11 yanvarya 2007 g. N F04-8719/2006(29809-A75-16). Delo № A75-2991/2006] // SPS «RosPravosudie» [in Russian].
  12. Radko 2014 – Radko T.N., The theory of state and law in schemes and definitions [Teoriya gosudarstva i prava v shemah i opredeleniyah]. M.: Prospekt, 2014 [in Russian].
  13. Romanenkova 2014 – Romanenkova E.N., International private law. Short course [Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo. Kratkiy kurs]. M.: Prospekt, 2014 [in Russian].
  14. The court panel on civil cases of Rostov district’s court. The case №33-13011 [Sudebnaya kollegiya po grazhdanskim delam Rostovskogo oblastnogo suda. Delo №33-13011] // SPS «RosPravosudie» [in Russian].




Albina M.Fathutdinova

PhD in Legal sciences, Associate professor, Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Revisiting the improvement of the legal regulation of economic relations


Raationale The subject of research in the framework of this article are the actual problems of state and legal regulation of economic relations.

Objectives The main goals of the following article are to consider the principles of state regulation of market economy and to analyze the state regulation of the market economy, as in the present conditions of functioning of the economic relations the economic development is not possible without the cooperation of market entities with public authorities.

Methods Author has employed such general and specific methods of scientific knowledge as analysis and synthesis, logical, comparative legal, sociological and statistical methods. The author has studied and analyzed the existing legislation of the Russian Federation.

Conclusion At the present stage it is necessary to improve and to create new laws permitting the further development of the business,  protecting the interests of society and proving the equality of subjects of market structures. It is proved that the entrepreneurship is supported by the state as it is necessary in all business sectors. It is noted that among the issues of state regulation of business activities are the provision of public benefits in the social sphere and state assistance to sectors of the economy. The author come to the conclusion  that the improvement of civil legislation is necessary in order to minimize potential business risks and the implementation of social protection of business entities, which would create favorable conditions for their further development.

Keywords: state, law, economic activity, entrepreneurship, regulations, market actors, economic relations, competition, market economy.

JEL Classification: К 20


  1. Alpatov (2012) – Alpatov A.A. About relationship between law and economics [O sootnoshenii prava i ekonomiki]//Governance and law [Gosudarstvo i pravo], № 1, 2012. [in Russian].
  2. Vasileva, Melovanova (2015) – Vasileva O.N., Melovanova M.N. Legal aspect of social responsibility business [Pravovoy aspekt sotsialnoy otvetstvennosti predprinimateley]/ Modern business in the innovation economy: theory and practice [Sovremennoe predprinematelstvo v innovatsionnoy ekonomike: teoriya i praktika]/ M.: Pero, 2015. [in Russian].
  3. Petyukova (2016) – Petyukova O.N. The legal regulation of financing of infrastructure projects at the expense of Foundation of assistance to reforming housing and communal services.[Pravovoe regulirovanie finansirovaniya infrastrukturnyih proektov za schet sredstv fonda sodeystviya reformirovaniyu zhilischno-kommunalnogo hozyaystva]. The modern lawyer [Sovremennyiy yurist], № 2 (15) 2016, page 95-107 [str.95-107]. [in Russian].
  4. Fathutdinova (2015) – Fathutdinova A.M. Problems of relationship between the state and morality [Problemyi sootnosheniya gosudarstva i nravstvennosti] // Scientific works of the Russian Academy of lawyers and notaries. [Uchenyie trudyi Rossiyskoy akademii advokaturyi i notariata]. 2015. № 2(37). [in Russian].
  5. Fathutdinova (2016) – Fathutdinova A.M. The role of state law in the market economy. [Rol gosudarstva, prava v ryinochnoy ekonomike]. A book of abstracts under red.Nurieva RM, International scientific conference «Reproduction of Russia in XXI century: the dialectic of controlled development. On the 80th anniversary of the publication of the book D.G.M. Keynes’s «General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money», 03-04 March 2016 [Sbornik tezisov dokladov pod red.Nurieva R.M., Mezhdunarodnaya nauchnaya konferentsiya «Vosproizvodstvo Rossii v HHI veke: dialektika reguliruemogo razvitiya. K 80-letiyu vyihoda svet knigi D.zh.M. Keynsa «Obschaya teoriya zanyatosti, protsenta i deneg», 03-04 marta 2016], page 177-181 [str.177-181] [in Russian].
  6. Fatkhutdinova (2016) – Fatkhutdinova A.M. Theoretical aspects of legal regulation of participants in entrepreneurial activity. [Teoreticheskie aspektyi pravovogo regulirovaniya uchastnikov predprinimatelskoy deyatelnosti], Proceedings of the IV International Congress «Entrepreneurship and business theory and methodology and practice of effective management of 23-27 June 2016» [Materialyi IV Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa «Predprinimatelstva i biznesa: teoriya i metodologi i praktika effektivnogo upravleniya 23-27 iyunya 2016 g,], the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation [Finansovyiy universitet pri Pravitelstve Rossiyskoy Federatsii], p.257-260 [str.257-260] [in Russian].
  7. Chepurnoy (2013) – Chepurnoy A.G. The constitutional foundations of social policy: modern concepts [Konstitutsionnyie osnovyi sotsialnoy politiki gosudarstva: sovremennyie kontseptsii]// Moscow University Russian Interior Ministry. [Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii]. -2013.- № 10. [in Russian].
  8. Chepurnoy, Kibakin, Fathutdinova, Sayfullin (2011) – Commercial Law:Textbook [Hozyaystvennoe pravo: Uchebnoe posobie]/ A.G.Chepurnoy, M.V.Kibakin, A.M.Fathutdinova, V.G.Sayfullin.-M.: University textbook [Vuzovskiy uchebnik: Infra-M], 2011. [in Russian].




Tatiana B. Gvozdeva

PhD in Historical Sciences, Associate professor, Department of l egal regulation of economic activities, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Inna A. Gvozdeva

PhD in Historical Sciences, Associate professor, Department of History of the Ancient World, Faculty of Historical Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow (E-mail:

Controversia as a category of the roman land law


Rationale Within the ancient societies the most advanced land law emerged in the agrarian structure of Rome. This research is decdicated to the study of the judicial process in its archaic form of controversie. The treatises of Roman agrimensores and surveyors published in the Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum (CAR) have become the main source of the present research.

Objective The main goal of this article is to analyze legal proceedings in the agricultural sector of Rome from the archaic ages to classical ones.

Methodology The methodological basis of the proposed research is based on the wide usage of CAR and other narrative sources, namely the writings of ancient authors and classical jurists on the components of controversie and their classification as a mixed, “actio in rem” or personal lawsuits.

Conclusions and Relevance Controversia is a title of a litigation in the land law of archaic period. It conformed to the standard procedures of the first period of development of the «ius civile» – the procedures of legis actio. The trial participants had an equal opportunity of their rights protection and a sacred oath was perceived as the main guarantee of the correctness. A feature of the Roman land law was that controversia kept all its constituent parts in preclassical and classic periods of the «ius civile», combining the archaic part of the proceedings with praetorian forms in the period of the formulary process.

Keywords: controversia (controversia), property, possession, dispute, litigation, border, space area

JEL Classification: K 11


  1. Gvozdeva (2015) – Gvozdeva T.B. Landmark sign in the system of Roman land law [Mezhevoj znak v sisteme rimskogo zemel’nogo prava], Agrarian and land law. Federal scientific legal monthly magazine [Agrarnoe i zemel’noe pravo. Federal’nyj nauchnyj juridicheskij ezhemesjachnyj zhurnal]. M., 2015. № 12 (132). P. 53–56. [in Russian]
  2. Gvozdeva, Gvozdeva (2015) – Gvozdeva T.B., Gvozdeva I.A. Strigatio-scamnatio – stage of development of the roman landed law [Strigatio-scamnatio – etap razvitija rimskogo zemel’nogo prava], The Modern Lawyer [Sovremennyj jurist]. 2015. No. 4 (13). P. 98–108. [in Russian]
  3. Gvozdeva, Gvozdeva (2016) – Gvozdeva T.B., Gvozdeva I.A. Veteran assignations in the Roman land law [Veteranskie assignacii v rimskom zemel’nom prave], The Modern lawyer [Sovremennyj jurist]. M., 2016. № 1 (14). P. 79–86. [in Russian]
  4. Behrends (1992) – Behrends O. Bodenhoheit und privates Bodeneigentum im Grenzwesen Roms // Die römische Feldmeßkunst, Göttingen, 1992. P. 192–284.
  5. Gabba (1992) – Gabba E. Ager publicus // Die römische Feldmeßkunst. Göttingen, 1992.
  6. Hinrichs (1974) – Hinrichs F.T. Die geschichte der gromatischen Institutionen. Wiesbaden, 1974.
  7. Kaser (1968) – Kaser M. Restituere als Prozessgegenstand. Die Wirkungen der litis contestatio auf den Leistungsgegenstand im römischen Recht. München, 1968.
  8. Knütel (1992) – Knütel R. Die actio finium regundorum und die ars gromatica // Die Römische Feldmeßkunst. Interdisziplinäre Beitrage zu ihrer Bedeutung für die Zivilizationsgeschichte Roms. Göttingen, 1992. P. 285–308.
  9. Mommsen (1887–1888) – Mommsen Th. Römisches Staatsrecht. B. III. Leipzig. 1887–1888.




Alexey P. Albov

Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities», Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Andrei V. Rizhik

Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Philosophical and legal aspects of legal institutionalization


Rationale The consideration of institutionalization as one of the ways of the legal impact on the relevant object of social relations, and through the object – on the corresponding social attitude in general have been studied as the main subject of the following article..

Goals/objectives The main goals of the present paper are to justify the need to introduce the concept of «legal institutionalization» into the theoretical and legal categorical toolkit as well as to analyse the procedures for models of institutionalizing the interests of subjects with different forms of ownership in the Russian legal system.

Methodology Within the conducted research such scientific methods as comparative analysis and comparative legal method both being the most productive in jurisprudence, while the objects of comparison were: the various institutions of civil law, as well as categories of theory and philosophy of law correlated with the concept of «institutionalization».

Conclusions It is proposed to introduce the category «legal institutionalization» into the scientific interests of the conceptual apparatus of civil and theory of law in relation to the interests of owners; Normative legal effect, is at the same time one of the types of legal integration of various interests into the sphere of law making; The subject of property right is, above all, a socialized capable person with the right to property, the realization of which is based on its proprietary interests.

Keywords: civil law, legal institutionalization, institutional and legal impact, property rights, interests of owners, civil legislation.

JEL Classification: К 30; К11


  1. Maslov-2012. Maslov K.V. Institucionalizacija administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva: pravovye problemy // Vestnik Omskogo un-ta. Serija: Pravo. 2012. № 3 (32). P. 65.
  2. Erznkjan- 2012. Erznkjan B.A. Issledovanie institucional’nyh ponjatij i harakternyh osobennostej formal’nyh i neformal’nyh institutov // Vestnik Universiteta (Gos. un-t upravlenija). 2012. № 20. P. 76 – 83; Blagodir A.L. O ponjatii, svojstvah i strukture sistemy prava // Vestnik Vjatskogo gos. gumanit. un-ta. 2011. № 2. P. 84 – 91.
  3. Tabolin- 2010. Tabolin V.V. Gorodskoe pravo kak institut municipal’nogo prava i kak nauka // Konstitucionnoe i municipal’noe pravo. 2010. № 9. P. 64 – 67; Fil’chenko A.P. Institut primirenija s poterpevshim v ugolovnom prave Rossii // Istorija gosudarstva i prava. 2013. № 12. P. 39 – 43.
  4. Al’bov, Ruchkina- 2016. Al’bov A.P., Ruchkina G.F.  Vlijanie nacional’noj pravovoj kul’tury, nacional’nogo prava i pravovoj sistemy na ustojchivoe razvitie jekonomiki // Gosudarstvo i pravo.2016. № 1. P.47-58.
  5. Vedenin- 2007. Vedenin V.S. Vlijanie pravoponimanija na stanovlenie i razvitie institutov rossijskogo prava (na primere patentnogo prava): dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. Vladimir, 2007. P. 82.
  6. Spiridonov- 2001. Spiridonov L.I. Teorija gosudarstva i prava. M., 2001. P. 151.
  7. Mihajlov- 1999. Mihajlov S.V. Interes kak obshhenauchnaja kategorija i ee otrazhenie v nauke grazhdanskogo prava // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 1999. № 7. P. 87.
  8. Kuz’mina-2009. Kuz’mina A.V. Kategorija «interes» v filosofii i prave. M., 2009. P. 307.
  9.   Kuz’mina-2011. Kuz’mina A.V. Juridicheskie interesy: teoretiko-pravovoe issledovanie. M., 2011. P. 155.
  10.  Tot’ev-2002. Tot’ev K.J. Publichnyj interes v pravovoj doktrine i zakonodatel’stve // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2002. № 9. P. 25.
  11. Pokrovskij-1998. Pokrovskij I.A. Osnovnye problemy grazhdanskogo prava. M., 1998 (po izdaniju 1917 g.). P. 39.
  12. Mal’ko, Lebedeva-2011. Mal’ko A.V., Lebedeva E.N. Stimuly v chastnom prave: problemy optimizacii // Sovremennoe pravo. 2011. № 6. P. 87.


Svetlana S. Gorokhova

PhD in Legal Sciences, Associate Professor,Associate Professor, Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (E-mail:

Public safety in the system of the national security in Russia


Subject/theme The subject of study is the social relations associated with legal regulation and further ensure of public safety as an element of national security of the Russian Federation in the process of implementation of government’s own functions.

Goals/objectives The main goal of the study is to formulate a comprehensive presentation of the legal regulation and public safety ensuring in the Russian Federation.

Methodology The methodological basis of the conducted research are such methods as universal methods of knowledge; general scientific methods, including systematic and logical method as well as the analysis, synthesis and analogy; special scientific methods such as the comparative legal method and formal legal method.

Conclusion Being one of the most important elements of the national security, public safety is a complex social and legal status associated with the securing of the rights and legitimate interests not only of society but of the individuals and the state as a whole. In this regard, the legislator is experiencing some difficulties in the process of regulatory consolidation and differentiation of certain types of security included in the aggregated category “security”. In addition to this, analysis of the legal framework governing relations in this sphere allows us to conclude that some acts of strategic planning establishing the conceptual foundations of ensuring public security in Russia need to be adjusted in the definition of the categorical-conceptual apparatus in this area as well as in the formulation of the purposes of the relevant activities.

Key words: security, national security, public safety, personal security, economic security, public safety, public security, forces and means ensuring public safety.

JEL Classification: K20



  1. Gorohova (2016) – Gorohova S.S. Bezopasnost’ kak pravovaja kategorija // Sovremennyj jurist. 2016. № 4 (17). P. 8-14.
  2. Samanjuk-2014. Samanjuk J. V. O sootnoshenii ponjatij «obshhestvennaja bezopasnost’» i «obshhestvennyj porjadok» // Molodoj uchenyj. – 2014. – №3. – P. 671-675.
  3. Gorohova (2016) – Gorohova S.S. O nekotoryh pravovyh podhodah k opredeleniju kriteriev sostojanija jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti v Rossii// V sbornike: Rossija v XXI veke: faktory i mehanizmy ustojchivogo razvitija sbornik statej Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. 2016. P. 87-91.





Marianna O. Rumyantseva

candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines of «Moscow psycho-social University» Associate Professor of the Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines of «Institute of world civilizations», Moscow (Е-mail:

Michail. I. Kulikov

postgraduate of the Department of criminal law disciplines of «Russian customs academy», Moscow (Е-mail:

Measure: concept, objectives, the grounds of election


The article analyses certain issues associated with the election of a preventive measure in criminal proceedings. On the basis of the generalization of law enforcement practice, the authors conclude that current criminal procedure legislation does not cover all the necessary circumstances which should be considered when choosing a measure of restraint, which significantly violates the rights and legitimate interests of participants of criminal proceedings. In this regard, the article proposes and substantiates a number of changes to the criminal procedure law, which will allow, according to the authors, to improve the effectiveness and implementation of the Institute of preventive measures in criminal proceedings.

Keywords: the measure of restraint in criminal proceedings; the purpose of election of a measure of restraint, the base of the restraint; the right of election of a measure of restraint; the circumstances to be considered in the remand.



  1. The decision of the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of 6 December 2011 № 27-P «on business about check of constitutionality of article 107 of the Criminal procedure code of the Russian Federation in connection with the complaint of the citizen of Estonian Republic A. T. Fedin» [Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federacii ot 6 dekabrya 2011 g. № 27-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti st. 107 Ugolovno-processualnogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federacii] // The Bulletin of the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation [Vestnik Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federacii], 2012. № 1. [2012. № 1].
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Kirill V. Gavrilov

PhD student, Department of «Civil Law and Procedure», Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (E-mail:

Limited liability company as a commercial corporate organization


Rationale. The subjects of research are corporate relations in organizations with limited liability as well as the realization of their opportunities within the corporation.

Objective. The main goal of this study is to formulate a complex legal notions of legal regulation of a limited liability company as a commercial enterprise.

Methods. The methodological basis of the study are such research methods as universal dialectical method; general scientific methods, such as a systematic method, logical method, analysis, analogy; private-scientific methods, such as comparative law method and the formal-legal method.

Conclusions and Relevance. A limited liability company, being a commercial organization and conducting business activities, the main purpose of which is profittaking, should be without any doubt considered as a corporate organization because this type of a legal entity complies with all the features of the corporation. Among other things, examining the regulatory legal base and the judicial practice, the author offers for the development of the civil law’s theory and the improvement of the national legislation the following: definition of a notion of “affiliate (interested) persons”; addition to the mandatory conditions for the recognition of the transaction null and void of a sign of “a proven fact of unfair practices of contractor”; description of three elements of such a novel of the Russian Federation Civil Code as a major transaction – nature of the transaction, the result of the transaction, subject of the transaction.

Keywords: civil law, business law, limited liability company, corporation, property, judicial precedent, affiliates, related party transactions, major transactions, commercial corporate organization.


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  8. Ibragimov (2016) – Ibragimov E.R. The legal status of a limited liability company and some of the problems of legal regulation of activity of business entities [Pravovoe polozhenie obschestva s ogranichennoy otvetstvennostyu i nekotoryie problemyi normativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya deyatelnosti hozyaystvennyih obschestv], The electronic catalog of the library of the law faculty of SPSU: The Bulletin TISBI [Elektronnyiy katalog biblioteki yuridicheskogo fakulteta SPbGU: vestnik TISBI] 2008. № 2. URL: (date of the application: 10.10.2016).
  9. Kalinina (2010) – Kalinina A.V. Affiliates as the special subject of legal relations: the theory and practice: the dissertation’s abstract … of PhD. jurid. Sciences [Affilirovannyie litsa kak osobyiy sub’ekt pravootnosheniy: voprosyi teorii i praktiki: avtoreferat dis. … kand. yurid. nauk], A.V. Kalinina. Saratov, 2010. 25 p.
  10. Commercial law: textbook for students of high schools trained on specialities «Jurisprudence» and «Commerce (trading business)» [Kommercheskoe pravo: uchebnik dlya studentov vuzov, obuchayuschihsya po spetsialnostyam «Yurisprudentsiya» i «Kommertsiya (torgovoe delo)»], edited by M.M. Rassolov, I.V. Petrov, P.V. Aleksiy. 4th edition, revised and expanded [pod red. M.M. Rassolova, I.V. Petrova, P.V. Aleksiya. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop.], Moscow: YuNITI-DANA, 2015. 503 p.
  11. Lomakin  (2001) – Lomakin D.V. Major transactions at the civil turnover [Krupnyie sdelki v grazhdanskom oborote], Legislation [Zakonodatelstvo], 2001. № 3. P. 18–25.
  12. Lomakin (2008) – Lomakin D.V. Corporate legal relations: the general theory and practice of its application in business entities [Korporativnyie pravootnosheniya: obschaya teoriya i praktika ee primeneniya v hozyaystvennyih obschestvah], Moscow: Statute [Moskva: Statut] 2008. 511 p. 
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